Pretreatment Technologies of Lignocellulosic Biomass: Potentials and Constraints for Ruminant Feed Production

Simon Petrus Ginting, Wisri Puastuti


Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) such as crop residues and agro-industrial wastes are renewable resources and available abundantly. It could play central role in sustainable feeding system of ruminant production. These materials are potential source of fiber to support optimum rumen function and energy supply. However the LCB has important nutritional constraints that limit their utilization as feed for ruminant. This review is intended to discuss nutritional constraints of LCB as ruminant feed and the potentials and challenges of pretreatment processes in upgrading the nutritional quality of LCB. The main polymer compounds in LCB are 30 to 60% cellulose, 20 to 40 % hemicellulose and 15-25% lignin and their inter linkages make the energy contained in the LCB is less extractable by the ruminant digestive system. Physical, chemical and biological pretreatments have been well known as an alternatives to process LCB in order to upgrade the nutritive values of LCB. Recently, novel pretreatment technologies of LCB such as ionic liquid, organosolv, sonication, and new screened rot white fungi (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) and some older technologies such as alkaline pretreatments and acids pretreatments have been studied and developed particularly for the purpose of biofuel production in the bio refinery industry. Pretreatment technologies have different properties in degrading the lignin, degrading and solubilizing the cellulose and hemicellulose that all relate to the nutritive quality of pretreated LCB. Advantages of pretreated LCB in ruminant animals were indicated by increase in diet digestibility, intake, rumen fermentation and gain. It is concluded that numerous pretreatment technologies are available to upgrade the nutritional quality of LCB, but there are obstacles to use some of these techniques for wide application in ruminant production system.


Feed; lignocellulosic biomass; pretreatment technology; ruminants


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