Non-Typhoid Salmonella Causes Food-borne Diseases: Its Prevention and Control

Engki Zelpina, S M Noor


Non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) is a pathogenic bacteria causing gastroenteritis in humans which is transmitted through animals and contaminated animal products with Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella enteritidis. Many cases of NTS infection in humans have been reported in the world, however most people in Indonesian are generally more familiar with Salmonella typhoid, which is caused by Salmonella typhoid and Salmonella paratypoid. Gastroenteritis due to NTS infection seldom requires antimicrobial treatment. If there is no post-infectious complications such as septicemia, reactive arthritis or aortic aneurysm. Eggs, chicken meat, raw milk and other animal products contaminated with NTS are a source of transmission through food (food-borne pathogens). An estimated 1-3% of pets carry NTS without causing illness. Control of NTS infection is difficult because Salmonella is tolerant to environmental stresses, widely spread, resistant to several types of antibiotics and has the ability to adapt. The application of strict biosecurity on farms is conducted through surveillance and monitoring so that it can  prevent the contamination of livestock products and their derivatives, hence, it can prevent the transmission of NTS to humans. This paper provides information on NTS in animal and human prevention and control.


NTS; foodborne disease; prevention; control

Full Text:



Andrews JR, Ryan ET. 2015. Diagnostics for invasive Salmonella infections: current challenges and future directions. Vaccine. 33:C8-C15.

Ariyanti T, Supar. 2008. Antigenisitas dan imunogenisitas Salmonella enteritidis: implikasinya dalam diagnosis dan pengembangan vaksin isolat lokal untuk unggas. Wartazoa. 18:187-197.

Boore AL, Hoekstra RM, Iwamoto M, Fields PI, Bishop RD, Swerdlow DL. 2015. Salmonella enterica infections in the United States and assessment of coefficients of variation: a novel approach to identify epidemiologic characteristics of individual serotypes, 1996-2011. PLoS One. 10:e0145416.

[BPOM] Badan Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan. Peraturan Kepala Badan Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan No. 16 tahun 2016 tentang kriteria mikrobiologi dalam pangan olahan. Jakarta (Indonesia): Badan Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan.

Bush LM, Perez MT. 2018. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections [Internet]. [Accessed 27 May 2020]. Available from: professional/infectious-diseases/gram-negativebacilli/ nontyphoidal-salmonella-infections#v11560157.

Campioni F, Souza RA, Martins VV, Stehling EG, Bergamini AMM, Falcão JP. 2017. Prevalence of gyrA mutations in nalidixic acid-resistant strains of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from humans, food, chickens, and the farm environment in Brazil. Microb Drug Resist. 23:421-428.

Carrasco E, Morales-Rueda A, María García-Gimeno R. 2012. Cross-contamination and recontamination by Salmonella in foods: A review. Food Res Int. 45:545-556.

[CDC] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016. Salmonellosis (Non typhoidal). [Internet]. [Accessed 27 May 2020]. Available from:

[CFSPH] Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2003. Non-Typhoidal Salmonellosis. Iowa (USA): Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine Ames Iowa.

Chen H, Wang Y, Su L, Chiu C. 2013. Non typhoid Salmonella infection: Microbiology, clinical features, and antimicrobial therapy. J Ped Neo. 54:147-152. doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2013.01.010.

Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. 2015. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00002-15.

Demirbilek SK. 2017. Salmonellosis in animals [Internet]. [Accessed 27 May 2020]. Available from:

Dione MM, Ikumapayi UN, Saha D, Mohammed NI, Geerts S, Ieven M, Antonio M. 2011. Clonal differences between Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) recovered from children and animals living in close contact in the Gambia. PLoS Neglected Trop Dis. 5:1-7.

Dimitrov T, Udo EE, Albaksami O, Kilani AA, el Shehab DM. 2007. Ciprofloxacin treatment failure in a case of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. J Med Microbiol. 56:277–279.

[Ditjennak] Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan. 2017. Kebijakan dan strategi pengendalian resistensi antimikroba di sektor peternakan dan kesehatan hewan. Disampaikan pada Ildex Indonesia 201. Jakarta, 19 Oktober 2017

Fabrega A, Vilaa J. 2013. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium skills to succeed in the host: Virulence and regulation. Clin Microbiol. 26:308-341.

[FDA] US Food Drug Administration. 2003. National antimicrobial resistance monitoring system-enteric bacteria (NARMS). Executive report. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, FDA, 2006 [Internet] [cited 2009 July 14]. Available from:

[GBD] Global Burden Diseases. 2017. Non-typhoidal salmonella invasive disease collaborators. The global burden of non-typhoidal salmonella invasive disease: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Infect Dis. 19:1312.

Gonzales-Barron UA, Redmond G, Butler F. 2012. A risk characterization model of Salmonella Typhimurium in Irish fresh pork sausages. Food Res Intern. 45:1184-1193.

Hohmann EL. 2001. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis. Clin Infect Dis. 32:263-269. doi: 10.1086/318457.

Hohmann LE. 2020. Nontyphoid Salmonella Bacteremia. Food Safety CID. 32:263-269.

Jeanjean SI, Roggentin P, Mikoleit M, Guibourdenche M, Pinna ED, Nair S, Fields PI, Weill FX. 2014. Supplement 2008-2010 (no.48) to the Whitee Kauffmanne Le Minor scheme. Res Microbiol. 165:526-530.

Keddy K. 2015. Understanding transmission of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella. Presented at: 9th International Conference on Typhoid and Invasive NTS Disease; 2015. April 30th – May 3rd; Bali, Indonesia [Internet]. [Accessed 27 May 2020]. Available from:

Kuhn KG, Falkenhorst G, Ceper TH, Dalby T, Ethelberg S, Mølbak K, Krogfelt KA. 2012. Detecting non-typhoid Salmonella in humans by ELISAs: A literature review. J Med Microbiol. 61:1-7. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.034447-0.

Le Hello S, Harrois D, Bouchrif B, Sontag L, Elhani D, Guibert V, Zerouali K, Weill FX. 2013. Highly drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky ST198-X1: a microbiological study. Lancet Infect Dis 13:672-679.

Lee HY, Su LH, Tsai MH, Kim SW, Chang HH, Jung SI, et al. 2009. High rate of reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone among nontyphoid salmonella clinical isolates in Asia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 53:2696–2699. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01 297-08.

Loisa, Lukman DW, Latif H. 2016. Resistensi Salmonella spp. terhadap beberapa antibiotik pada daging itik di kabupaten bogor yang dapat memengaruhi kesehatan konsumen. Jurnal Kedokteran Hewan. 10:115-120.

Majowicz SE, Musto J, Scallan E, Angulo FJ, Kirk M, O'Brien SJ, Jones TF, Fazil A, Hoekstra RM. 2010. The global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. Clin Infect Dis. 50:882-889. doi: 10.1086/650733.

McDermott PF, Tyson GH, Kabera C, Chen Y, Li C, Folster JP, et al. 2016. Whole-genome sequencing for detecting antimicrobial resistance in Nontyphoidal Salmonella. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 60:5515-5520.

Nair DVT, Venkitanarayanan K, Johny AK. 2018. Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella in the food supply and the potential role of antibiotic alternatives for control. Foods. 7:167.

Olsen SJ, Bishop R, Brenner FW, Roels TH, Bean N, Tauxe RV, Slutsker L. 2001. The changing epidemiology of Salmonella: trends in serotypes isolated from humans in the United States, 1987-1997. J Infect Dis. 183:753-761.

Sandt CH, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Tewari D, Ostroff S, Joyce K, M’ikanatha NM. 2013. A comparison of Non-typhoidal Salmonella from humans and food animals using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. PLoS ONE. 8:1-10. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077836.

Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe R V., Widdowson MA, Roy SL, Jones JL, Griffin PM. 2011. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States-Major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 17:7-15. doi: 10.3201/eid1701.P11101.

Su LH, Chiu CH, Chu C, Ou JT. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance in nontyphoid Salmonella serotypes: A global challenge. Clin Infect Dis. 39:546-551. doi: 10.1086/422726.

Tiong V, Thong KL, Yusof MY, Hanifah YA, Sam JI, Hassan H. 2010. Macrorestriction analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of Salmonella enterica at a University Teaching Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Jpn J Infect Dis. 63:317-322.

Townes JM. 2010. Reactive arthritis after enteric infections in the United States: The problem of definition. Clin Infect Dis. 50:247-254.

Threlfall EJ. 2002. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella: problems and perspectives in food- and water-borne infections. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 26:141-148.

Wegener HC, Hald T, Lo Fo Wong D, Madsen M, Korsgaard H, Bager F, Gerner-Smidt P, Mølbak K. 2003. Salmonella control programs in Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 9:774-780. doi: 10.3201/eid0907.030024.

Weinberger M, Yaron S, Agmon V, Yishai R, Rosenberg A, Peretz C. 2011. Curtailed short-term and long-term survival following infection with Non typhoid Salmonella in Israel. Clin Microbiol Infect. 17:278-284.

[WHO] World Health Organization. 2016. Salmonella (non-typhoidal) [Internet]. [diunduh 8 April 2017]. Tersedia dari: factsheets/fs139/en/.

Zelpina E, Purnawarman E, Lukman DW. 2018. Keberadaan Salmonella pada daging ayam suwir bubur ayam yang dijual di lingkar kampus Institut Pertanian Bogor. Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian. 15:73-79.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)  2020 WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.