Immunomodulatory Effects of Virgin Coconut Oil in Wistar Rats Infected with Staphylococcus aureus

Desy Cahya Widianingrum, Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia

Abstract

The virgin coconut oil (VCO) contains bioactive that induce immunity against infectious diseases. This study aim to determine the immunomodulatory effects of VCO based on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lymphocyte proliferation, and histopathological examination in liver and kidney of rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus. The VCO was given intragastrically to rats with a dose of 250 µL for one week. The rats were infected with S. aureus at 5x102 bacterial cells intraperitoneally. Twenty (20) female Wistar rats of one month old were divided into four groups. The negative control group (C-): without treatment, AV group: infected with S. aureus followed by VCO treatment; VA group: pretreated with VCO followed by S. aureus infection, and positive control group (C+): were infected with S. aureus without VCO. All rats were euthanized and necropsied based on the animal ethic standard. Plasma samples were taken to evaluate SOD activity, and lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen to determine their proliferative ability. Livers and kidneys were collected for a histopathology examination. The results showed that the VA group had the highest SOD activity on the 4th week (41.50 ± 3.56 %) and lymphocyte proliferation (0.3018) compared to all treatments, indicating immunomodulatory effects of VCO. Liver of treatments group showed leucocytes infiltration, no hemorrhages (VA); the hepatocytes with normal cells (VA). Kidney of treatments group showed leucocytes infiltration (AV); normal epithelial glomerulus and tubulus cells, still found hemorrhage (VA). These studies indicated that VCO has a potential role as an immunomodulator, hepatoprotectant, and nephroprotectant.

Keywords

Virgin coconut oil, Staphylococcus aureus, Superoxide dismutase, Lymphocyte proliferation, Liver, Kidney

References

Abujazia MA, Muhammad N, Shuid AN, Soelaiman IN. 2012. The effects of virgin coconut oil on bone oxidative status in ovariectomised rat. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

ACTG Laboratory Technologist Committee. 2000. ACTG Lab Man Lymphocyte Proliferation Assay. Version 1.0. 1-11.

Akinnuga AM, Bamidele O, Adewumi AJ. 2019. Evaluation of kidney function parameters in diabetic rats following virgin coconut oil diet. Folia medica. 61 (2): 249-257.

Albanis E, Friedman BL, Antifibrotic agents for liver disease. 2006. American Journal of Transplantation. 6: 12–19

Anonymous. 2009. Bio Vision, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity Assay Kit (Catalog K335-100). Linda Vista Avenue, Montain View. CA 94043 USA.

Aziz T, Olga Y, Sari AP. 2017. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) using the salting method. Jurnal Teknik Kimia (Journal of Chemical Engineering). 23 (2):129-136.

Bartz RR, Suliman HB, Fu P, Welty-Wolf K, Carraway MS, MacGarvey NC, ... Piantadosi CA. 2011. Staphylococcus aureus sepsis and mitochondrial accrual of the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase DNA repair enzyme in mice. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 183(2): 226-233.

Bolin AP, Macedo RC, Marin DP, Barros MP, Otton R. 2010. Astaxanthin prevents in vitro auto-oxidative injury in human lymphocytes. Cell biology and toxicology. 26 (5): 457-467.

Brooks H. 2010. Inflammation. In: General Pathology for Veterinary Nurses. Malaysia: Wiley-Blackwell. 52-55.

Chinwong S, Chinwong D, Mangklabruks A. 2017. Daily consumption of virgin coconut oil increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy volunteers: a randomized crossover trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 1-8.

Chung DJ, Sung K, Osuagwu FC, Wu HH, Lassman C, Lu DS. 2016. Contrast enhancement patterns after irreversible electroporation: experimental study of CT perfusion correlated to histopathology in normal porcine liver. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 27(1): 104-111.

Dauqan EM, Abdullah A, Sani HA. 2012. Effect of Different Concentrations of Red Palm Olein and Different Vegetable Oils on Antioxidant Enzymes in Normal and Stressed Rat. Antioxidant Enzyme. 303.

Deppermann C, Kubes P. 2018. Start a fire, kill the bug: the role of platelets in inflammation and infection. Innate immunity. 24(6): 335-348.

Đurašević S, Jasnić N, Prokić M, Grigorov I, Martinović V, Đorđević J, Pavlović S. 2019. The protective role of virgin coconut oil on the alloxan-induced oxidative stress in the liver, kidneys and heart of diabetic rats. Food & function. 10 (4): 2114-2124.

El-Tohamy, M. M. (2012). The mechanisms by which oxidative stress and free radical damage produces male infertility. Life Sci J, 9(1): 674-688.

Famurewa AC, Aja PM, Maduagwuna EK, Ekeleme-Egedigwe CA, Ufebe OG, Azubuike-Osu SO. 2017. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of virgin coconut oil supplementation abrogate acute chemotherapy oxidative nephrotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate in rats. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 96: 905-911.

Famurewa AC, Ugwu-Ejezie CS, Iyare EE, Folawiyo AM, Maduagwuna EK, Ejezie FE. 2019. Hepatoprotective effect of polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil against sub-chronic cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats is associated with improvement in antioxidant defense system. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 1-9.

Fauzi A, Yanti F, Eka S, and Suriandini L. 2012. The Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice (Mus musculus) observed from different organ histopathology. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 8 (2): 1168-1173.

Felistiani V. 2017. Activity test etanol exstract avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed on histopathology representative mice’s (Mus musculus) liver and spleen infected by Staphylococcus aureus [Theses]. [Malang (Indonesia)]: The State Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim.

Ferenbach DA, Bonventre JV. 2016. Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease: From the laboratory to the clinic. Nephrologie & therapeutique. 12: S41-S48.

Fernando WMADB, Martins IJ, Goozee KG, Brennan CS, Jayasena V, Martins RN. 2015. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action. British Journal of Nutrition. 114 (1): 1-14.

Galus M, Kirischian N, Higgins S, Purdy J, Chow J, Rangaranjan S, Wilson, JY. 2013. Chronic, low concentration exposure to pharmaceuticals impacts multiple organ systems in zebrafish. Aquatic toxicology. 132: 200-211.

Guebre-Egziabher F, Alix PM, Koppe L, Pelletier CC, Kalbacher E, Fouque D, Soulage CO. 2013. Ectopic lipid accumulation: a potential cause for metabolic disturbances and a contributor to the alteration of kidney function. Biochimie. 95(11): 1971-1979.

Hapsari N, Welasih T. 2013. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) by centrifugation method. Jurnal Teknologi Pangan (Journal of Food Technology). 4 (2).

Hernandez-Gea V, Friedman SL. 2011. Pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Annual review of pathology: mechanisms of disease. 6: 425-456.

Jim EL. 2013. Metabolism of lipoproteins. Jurnal biomedik. 5 (3).

Kamisah Y, Ang SM, Othman F, Nurul-Iman BS, Qodriyah HMS. 2016. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 41 (10): 1033-1038.

Koyama Y, Brenner DA. 2017. Liver inflammation and fibrosis. The Journal of clinical investigation. 127(1): 55-64.

Lip GY, Frison L, Halperin JL, Lane DA. 2011. Comparative validation of a novel risk score for predicting bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation: the HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal Renal/Liver Function, Stroke, Bleeding History or Predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/Alcohol Concomitantly) score. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 57(2): 173-180.

Lucas SB, Zaki SR, Portmann BC. 2011. Other viral and infectious diseases and HIV-related liver disease. MacSween’s Pathology of the Liver. 20126th ed Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Churchill Livingstone. p. 403-466.

Manohar V, Echard B, Perricone N, Ingram C, Enig M, Bagchi D, Preuss HG. 2013. In vitro and in vivo effects of two coconut oils in comparison to monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: rodent studies. Journal of Medicinal Food. 16 (6): 499-503.

Mansor TST, Man YBC, Shuhaimi M, Afiq MJA, Nurul FKMK. 2012. Physicochemical properties of virgin coconut oil extracted from different processing methods. International Food Research Journal. 19 (3): 837-845.

Mu’izuddin MS, Al-Ani IM, Mahmud MIA, Muhammad N, Kasmuri HM. 2018. Protective effect of virgin coconut oil on cyclophosphamide-induced histological changes in lymphoid tissues. IIUM Medical Journal Malaysia. 17 (3).

Narayanankutty A, Illam SP, Raghavamenon AC. 2018. Health impacts of different edible oils prepared from coconut (Cocos nucifera): A comprehensive review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 80: 1-7.

Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. 2006. Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats. Food Chem. 99: 260-266.

Novarianto H, Tulalo M. 2015. Kandungan asam laurat pada berbagai varietas kelapa sebagai bahan baku VCO. Jurnal Littri 13 (1): 28-33.

Osunomena U, Ademuyiwa AJ, Tinuade OO, Uduenevwo FE, Martin O, Okolie NP. 2012. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), Liver Function enzyme, Renal Function Parameters and Oxidative Stress Parameters: a Review. Br. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 3 (4): 165-176.

Pellicoro A, Ramachandran P, Iredale, JP. 2012. Reversibility of liver fibrosis. In Fibrogenesis & tissue repair, BioMed Central. 5 (1): 1-4).

Pellicoro A, Ramachandran P, Iredale JP, Fallowfield JA. 2014. Liver fibrosis and repair: immune regulation of wound healing in a solid organ. Nature Reviews Immunology, 14 (3): 181-194.

Pollitt EJ, Szkuta PT, Burns N, Foster SJ. 2018. Staphylococcus aureus infection dynamics. PLoS pathogens. 14(6): e1007112.

Pontoh J, Surbakti MB, Papilaya M. 2019. Quality virgin coconut oil from several manufacturing methods. Chemistry Progress. 1 (1): 60-65.

Pulung M, Yogaswara R, Sianipar FR. 2016. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Virgin Coconut Oil from Papua. Chemistry Progress. 9 (2).

Rajamohan T, Archana U. 2018. Nutrition and health aspects of coconut. In The Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.). Research and Development Perspectives, Springer, Singapore. 757-777

Rauch S, DeDent AC, Kim HK, Wardenburg JB, Missiakas DM, Schneewind O. 2012. Abscess formation and alpha-hemolysin induced toxicity in a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus peritoneal infection. Infection and immunity. 80(10): 3721-3732.

Sheela DL, Nazeem PA, Narayanankutty A, Shylaja RM, Davis SP, James P, Valsalan R, Babu TD, Raghavamenon AC. 2017. Coconut phytocompounds inhibits polyol pathway enzymes: implication in prevention of microvascular diabetic complications. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 127: 20-24.

Shilling M, Matt L, Rubin E, Visitacion MP, Haller NA, Grey SF, Woolverton CJ. 2013. Antimicrobial effects of virgin coconut oil and its medium-chain fatty acids on Clostridium difficile. Journal of Medicinal Food. 16 (12): 1079-1085.

Silaban R, Manullang RS, Hutapea V. 2014. Virgin coconut oil (vco) through a combination of fermentation and enzymatic techniques using pineapple extracts. Jurnal pendidikan kimia (Journal of chemistry education), 6 (1): 91-100.

Sohrabpour AA, Mohamadnejad M, Malekzadeh R. 2012. the reversibility of cirrhosis. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 36(9): 824-832.

Suhita NLPR, Sudira IW, Winaya IBO. 2013. Histopathology of white rat kidney due to oral administration of gotu kola extract (Centella asiatica). Udayana Veterinary Bulletin. 5 (2): 71-78.

Sujono TA, Wahyuni AS, Da’i M, Trisharyanti I, Kusumowati D. 2015. Effect of Meniran (Phyllanthus Niruri L) Ethanol Extract for 90 Days on Rat Liver Function. University Research Colloquium. 136-143.

Surewaard BG, Thanabalasuriar A, Zeng Z, Tkaczyk C, Cohen TS, Bardoel BW, Jenne CN. 2018. α-Toxin induces platelet aggregation and liver injury during Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. Cell host & microbe: 24(2): 271-284.

Tangwatcharin P, Khopaibool P. 2012. Activity of virgin coconut oil, lauric acid or monolaurin in combination with lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine Public Health. 43 (4): 969-985

Tizard IR. 2000. Immunology: An Introduction. Ed ke-6. New York: Saunders College Publishing. 98-161.

Tsochatzis EA, Bosch J, Burroughs AK. 2014. Liver cirrhosis. The Lancet, 383 (9930): 1749-1761.

Wang W, Wu Z, Dai Z, Yang Y, Wang J, Wu G. 2013. Glycine metabolism in animals and humans: implications for nutrition and health. Amino acids. 45(3): 463-477.

Widianingrum DC, Noviandi CT, Salasia SIO. 2019a. Antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities of virgin coconut oil (VCO) against Staphylococcus aureus. Heliyon. 5: 1-5.

Widianingrum DC, Salasia SIO, Noviandi CT. 2019b. In vitro Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation Characteristic of Ruminants Ration Supplemented with Protected Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO). [Proceeding]. National Seminar Animal Technology and Veteriner. Jember, Juli 2019. Bogor (Indonesia): Puslitbangnak. 168-176.

Widianingrum DC. 2017. Immunomodulator Potential of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) as a Feed Supplement for Staphylococcus aureus Infection Causes in Subclinical Mastitis of Goats. [Dissertation]. Universty of Gadjah Mada.

Yassen L.T, Khelkal N. 2015. Effect of some fatty acids on virulence factors of Proteus mirabilis. International Journal of Advanced biomedical and Biological Research. 5 (2): 108-117.

Yuniwarti EYW, Asmara W, Artama WT, Tabbu CR. 2012. The effect of Virgin Coconut Oil on lymphocyte and CD4 in chicken vaccinated against Avian Influenza virus. Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture. 37(1): 64-69.

Yuniwarti EYW. 2012. Virgin coconut oil as imunomodulator on broiler chicken infected by avian influenza virus. [Dissertation]. Universty of Gadjah Mada.

Zicker MC, Silveira ALM, Lacerda DR, Rodrigues DF, Oliveira CT, de Souza Cordeiro LM, ... Ferreira AVM. 2019. Virgin coconut oil is effective to treat metabolic and inflammatory dysfunction induced by high refined carbohydrate-containing diet in mice. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 63: 117-128.

Refbacks

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.