Pathogenicity of Philippine and Indonesian Trypanosoma evansi Isolates in Mice and Their Responses to Typanocides

Alan P Dargantes, April Hari Wardhana, Jose Alexander C Abella, Milkesidick R Sequito, Simon A Reid, Douglas Bruce Copeman, K AT Dargantes

Abstract

The pathogenicity of 10 isolates of T. evansi collected from  Mindanao, Philippines, and one isolate from East Java, Indonesia was determined and compared. The susceptibility of these isolates against diminazene aceturate, melarsomine dihydrochloride, suramin and quinapyramine sulphate/chloride were also tested. Twenty-five mice were infected intraperitoneally with each isolate and 20 were treated with the 4 drugs (5 mice/drug) while 5 infected mice and 7 uninfected mice served as infected-untreated and uninfected controls, respectively. Treatment was carried out 24 hours post-infection and parasitemia was monitored for 35 days. Mice infected with Philippine isolates significantly died earlier (5-11 days) than those infected with the Indonesian isolate (14-16 days). The prepatent period for Philippine isolates (3-8 days) was significantly shorter than the Indonesian strain (11-13 days).  Trypanosomes were not observed in the blood of mice infected with any of the Philippine isolates when treated with quinapyramine sulphate/chloride, melarsomine dihydrochloride or suramin. Two of 10 mice infected with either C4 or A9 Philippine isolates and treated with diminazene aceturate had parasitemia on days 29 and 31, respectively. It is concluded that isolates of T. evansi from Mindanao, Philippines, are more pathogenic than the isolate from East Java, Indonesia. This study also indicated that quinapyramine sulphate/chloride, melarsomine dihydrochloride and suramin are effective against these T. evansi isolates from Mindanao, Philippines and East Java, Indonesia, while two of the Mindanao isolates are resistant to diminazene. This information is valuable in the enhancement of the control strategy against surra in the Philippines and Indonesia.

Keywords

East Java, Mindanao, Pathogenicity, Resistance, Trypanosoma evans

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