Awareness of Emerging Glanders in Horses in Indonesia

Susan Maphilindawati Noor, T Ariyanti


Glanders is a zoonotic disease that is highly contagious in animals and humans, caused by Burkholderia mallei. The clinical manifestations of glanders in horses are in the form of lesions on skin, nose and lungs. Horses play a role in transmitting glanders to healthy animal populations around them due to latent infections. Infection of glanders in humans is acute causing respiratory failure and could be fatal without proper treatment. Recently re-emerging glanders is reported in several countries that have eradicated diseases such as in India, Germany and China. The status of glanders in Indonesia is declared free, but surveillance showed positive antibodies to B. mallei in horses, as had been reported in 1939 and in 2018 in Jakarta. Glanders has a negative impact on a country's economy resulting in restrictions on international trade. Prevention of emerging glanders to Indonesia needs to be alerted because there is no effective treatment, no vaccines available for prevention and causing negative economic impacts. This paper aims to discuss glanders in horses, countermeasures through monitoring and surveillance, early detection in order to increase awareness of emerging glanders in Indonesia.


Glanders; Burkholderia mallei; horses; emerging; Indonesia

Full Text:



Al-Ani FK, Al-Rawashdeh OF, Ali AH, Hassan FK. 1998. Glanders in horses: clinical, biochemical and serological studies in Iraq. Vet. Arch. 68: 155–162.

Anderson PD, Bokor G. 2012. Bioterrorism: Pathogens as weapons. J Pharm Practice. 25: 521-529.

Arun S, et al. 1999. Equine glanders in Turkey. Vet Rec. 144: 255–258.

Bazargani TT, Tadjbakhs H, Badii A, Zahraei T. 1996. The outbreak of glanders in some racehorses in three states of Iran. J Equine Vet Sci. 16: 232–236.

Blieck De L. 1911. Kwadedroes-infectie in verband met de conjunctivale malleinatie en agglutinate. Veeartsenijkundige Mededeeling Van Het Department Van Landboue. Veterinary Institute Buitenzorg. Java 3: 1-20.

Blue SR, Pombo DJ, and Woods ML. 1998. Glanders and melioidosis. In: Palmer S. R, Soulsby L, and (eds) DIH. Simpson Zoonoses: biology, clinical practice and public health control, 2nd edn, pp. 105–113. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Burtnick MN, Heiss RA, Roberts HP. Schweizer P, Azadi, and Brett PJ. 2012. Development of capsular polysaccharide-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2: 108-108.

CDC. 2000. Laboratory-acquired human glanders—Maryland, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 49: 532–535.

CDC. 2012. Information for health care workers. Glanders. Retrieved from

CFSPH. 2015. Glanders. Retrieved from Verma, A.K., et al. 2014. Glanders-A re-emerging zoonotic disease: a review. J Biol Sci. 14: 38–51.

Coenye T, Vandamme P. 2003. Diversity and significance of Burkholderia species oc- cupying diverse ecological niches. Environ Microbiol. 5: 719–729.

Dhama K, Chakraborty S, Kapoor S, Tiwari R, Kumar A, Deb R, Rajagunalan S, Singh R, Vora K, Natesan S. 2013. One world, one health veterinary perspectives. Adv Anim Vet Sci. 1: 5-13.

Dirkeswan. 2018. Self-Declaration of an Equine Disease Free Zone in Jakarta, Indonesia, for the purpose of facilitating the Equestrian competitions in the framework of the 18th Asian Games 2018.

Elschner MC, Klaus CU, Liebler‐Tenorio E, Schmoock G, Wohlsein P, Tinschmann O, Lange E, Kaden V, Klopfleisch R, Melzer F, Rassback A, Neubauer H. 2009. Burkholderia mallei infection in a horse imported from Brazil. Equine Vet. Educ. 21:147–150.

Elschner MC, Scholz HC, Melzer F, Saqib M, Marten P. Rassbach A, Dietzsch M, Schmoock G, de Assis Santana VL, de Souza MM, 2011. Use of a Western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders. BMC Vet. Res. 7: 4.

Elschner MC, Liebler TE, Brügmann M, Melzer F, Neubauer H. 2016. Re-appearance of glanders into Western Europe −clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in a German horse. OIE Sci. Technol. Rev. Bull. 1: 76–79.

Galyov EE, Brett PJ, and DeShazer D. 2010. Molecular insights into Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei pathogenesis. Annual Review of Microbiology. 64: 495–517.

Gilad J. Harary I. Dushnitsky T. Schwartz D. and Amsalem Y. 2007. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei as bioterrorism agents: national aspects of emergency preparedness. Israeli Med Association J. 9: 499–503.

Gregory BC, Waag DM. In: Medical aspects of biological warfare. Dembek ZF, editor. Washington, DC: Borden Institute; 2007. Glanders; pp. 121–146.

Hagebock JM, Schlater LK, Frerichs WM, Olson DP, 1993. Serologic responses to the mallein test for glanders in solipeds. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 5: 97–99.

Hunting W. 1913. Glanders. In: A System of Veterinary Medicine, Hoarse, E.W. (Ed.). Balliere Tindall and Cox, London.

Katz JB, Chieves LP, Hennager SG, Nicholson JM, Fisher TA, Byers PE. 1999. Serodiagnosis of equine piroplasmosis, dourine, and glanders using an arrayed im- munoblotting method. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 11: 292–294.

Kementan RI. 2009. Keputusan Meneteri Pertanian Nomor 3238/Kpts/PD.630/9/2009 tentang penggolongan jenis-jenis hama penyakit hewan karantina, Penggolongan dan klasifikasi Media pembawa. Berita Negara RI tahun 2009 Nomor 307. Jakarta.

Kettle ANB and Wernery U. 2016. Glanders and the risk for its introduction through the international movement of horses. Equine Vet. J. 48 (5): 654-658

Kahn LH, Kaplan B, and Steele JH. 2007. Confronting zoonoses through closer collaboration between medicine and veterinary medicine (as 'one medicine'). Vet. Italiana. 43: 5-19.

Khan I, Wieler LH, Butt MA, Elschner MC, Cheema AH, Sprague LD, Neubauer H, 2012. On the current situation of glanders in various districts of the Pakistani Punjab. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 32: 783–787.

Khan I, Wieler LH, Melzer F, Elschener C, Muhammad G, Ali S, Sprague LD, Neubauer H, and Saqib M. 2012. Glanders in animals: a review on epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and countermeasures. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 60 (3), 204–221.

Khan, I., Ali, S., Gwida, M., Elschner, M.C., Ijaz, M., Anjum, A.A., Neubauer, H., 2013. Prevalence of Burkholderia mallei in Equids of Remount Depot Sargodha, Pakistan. Pak. J. Zool. 45, 1751–1756.

Limmathurotsakul D, Wuthiekanun V, Chantratita N, Wongsuvan G, Amornchai P, Day NP, Peacock SJ. 2010. Burkholderia pseudomallei is spatially distributed in soil in northeast Thailand. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 4, e694.

Lopez J, Copps J, Wilhelmsen C, Moore R, Kubay J, St-Jacques M, Halayko S, Kranendonk C, Toback S, DeShazer D. Fritz DL, Tom M, and Woods DE. 2003. Characterization of experimental equine glanders. Microbs. Infect. 5:1125–1131.

Lowe W. March JK. Bunnell AJ. O’Neill KL. & Robinson RA. 2014. PCR-based Methodologies Used to Detect and Differentiate the Burkholderia pseudomallei complex: B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis.Curr. Issues Mol. Biol., 16, 23–54. Epub 2013 Aug 22.

Malik P, Khurana SK, Dwivedi SK. 2010. Re-emergence of glanders in India: report of Maharashtra state. Indian J. Microbiol. 50:345–348.

Malik P, Singha H, Khurana SK, Kumar R, and Kumar S. et al. 2012. Emergence and re-emergence of glanders in India: A description of outbreaks from 2006 to 2011. Vet. Ital. 48: 167-178.

Naureen A, Saqib M, Faqeer M, Ahmad R. Muhammad G, Asi MN, Hussain MH, Lodhi LA, Khan MS, and Thibault FM. 2010. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 41 B urkholderia mallei isolates from outbreaks of equine glanders in Punjab, Pakistan. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 30: 134–140.

Neubauer H, Meyer H, Finke EJ. 1997. Human glanders. Rev. Int. Serv. Sante Forces Armees 70:258–265.

Neubauer H et al. 2005. Serodiagnosis of Burkholderia mallei infections in horses: state-of-the-art and perspectives. J. Vet. Med. B 52:201–205.

Obersteller S, Neubauer H, Hagen RM & Frickmann H. 2016. Comparison of five commercial nucleic acid extraction kits for the PCR-based detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded tissues. Eur. J. Microbiol. Immunol. (Bp). 6: 244–252.

OIE. 2016. Chapter 12.10. Glanders. Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Retrieved from

OIE. 2019. Glanders. Information on aquatic and terrestrial animal diseases, Retreived from

Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, and Constable PD. 2007. Veterinary Medicine – A Textbook of Diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats, 10th edn. W.B. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, USA.

Ribolzi O, Rochelle-Newall E, Dittrich S, Auda Y, Newton PN, Rattanavong S, Knappik M, Soulileuth B, Sengtaheuanghoung O, Dance DA. 2016. Land use and soil type determine the presence of the pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei in tro- pical rivers. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 23: 7828–7839.

Ricketti AJ, Cunha BA, Cleri DJ, Shenk SH, Vemaleo JR, and. Unkle DW. 2011. Biological terrorism and the allergist's office practice. Allergy Asthma Proc. 32: 272-287.

Rotz LD, Khan AS, Lillibridge SR, Astroff SM, and Hughes JM, 2002. Public health assessment of potential biological terrorism agents. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2: 225–230.

Scholz HC, Pearson T, Hornstra H, Projahn M, Terzioglu R, Wernery R, Georgi E, Riehm JM, Wagner DM, Keim PS, 2014. Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an outbreak of glanders in Bahrain suggests multiple introduction events. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 8: e3195.

Silva EB and Dow SW. 2013. Development of Burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei vaccines. Front Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 3 (10): 3389.

Sprague LD and Neubauer H. 2004. Melioidosis in Animals: a review on epizootiology, diagnosis and clinical presentation. J. Vet. Med. B. 51: 305–320.

Sprague LD, Zachariah R, Neubauer H, Wernery R, Joseph M, Scholz HC, Wernery U. 2009. Prevalence-dependent use of serological tests for diagnosing glanders in horses. BMC Vet. Res. 5: 32.

Timoney J. 2013. Overview of glanders (Farcy). Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved from

Van Zandt, K.E., Greer, M.T., and Gelhaus, H.C. 2013. Glanders: an overview of infection in humans. Orphanet. Journal of Rare Diseases. 8: 131.

Verma Amit K, Saminathan M, Tiwari R, K. Dhama K, and Singh S. 2014. Glanders - a re-emerging zoonotic disease: a review. Journal of Biological Sciences.14 (1):38–51.

Wilkinson L. 1981. Glanders: Medicine and veterinary medicine in common pursuit of a contagious disease. Med. Hist., 25: 363-384.

Wittig MB, Wohlsein P, Hagen RM, Al Dahouk S, and Tomaso H. et al. 2006. Glanders-a comprehensive review. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr.113: 323-330.

Yabuuchi E, Kosako Y, Oyaizu H, Yano I, Hotta H, Ha-shimoto Y, Ezaki T, and Arakawa M. 1992. Proposal of Burkholderia genus and transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus. J. Microbiol.Immunol. 36: 1251–1275.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)  2019 WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.