Smallholder Livestock Commercialization

Roger Merkel

Abstract

The world’s population is expected to grow by over 30% by 2050, putting tremendous strain on agriculture to produce the estimated additional one billion tons of cereal grains and 200 million tons of meat to feed that population. Most of the population growth will occur in Africa and Asia where the majority of smallholder farms are located. Commercialization of smallholder farms can lead to increased productivity. Producer identified constraints to commercialization include infrastructure, poor knowledge of market prices, limited access to banking services and loan opportunities, and poor extension services, among others. To overcome these constraints will take actions by various sectors. Producer must become more market oriented and take advantage of current technologies to improve production. Government organizations should develop ways to build farmer capacity in market and production activities. Research institutes and universities must conduct research to drive innovation, help farmers to apply technologies, and develop means to enhance producer knowledge. Making loans and banking services available to farmers is a main role of the private sector. The private sector can also partner with producers on marketing and market access.

Keywords

Smallholder; Livestock; Commercialization

Full Text:

PDF

References

A Better Way Farms. 2018. Goat herdshare program. Get raw goat’s milk straight from the farm. A Better Way Farms [Internet]. Available from: http://www.abetterwayfarms.com/rawmilk.html

Abebe G, Merkel RC, Animut G, Sahlu T, Goetsch AL. 2004. Effects of ammoniation of wheat straw and supplementation with soybean meal or broiler litter on feed intake and digestion in yearling Spanish goat wethers. Small Rum Res. 51:37-46.

Anderson M, Perrin A, Jiang J. 2018. 11% of Americans don’t use the internet. Who are they? Pew Research Center [Internet]. Available from: http://www. pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/03/05/some-americans-dont-use-the-internet-who-are-they/

Berhanu G, Moti J. 2010. Commercialization of smallholders: Does market orientation translate into market participation? In: Improving Productivity and Market Success. (IPMS) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 22. Nairobi (Kenya): ILRI.

Boka GT. 2017. Climate change challenges, smallholders’ commercialization, and progress out of poverty in Ethiopia. In: Shimeles A, Anyanwu JC, Faye I, Ngaruko F, Simpasa A, Salami AO, Verdier-Chouchane A, editors. Working Paper Series No. 253, African Development Bank. Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire): African Development Bank.

Bonilla J, McCarthy N, Mugatha S, Rai N, Coombes A, Brubaker J. 2018. Impact evaluation of the smallholder dairy commercialization programme in Kenya. In: 3ie Impact Eval Rep 73 [Internet]. New Delhi (India): International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie). Available from: https://doi.org/ 10.23846/tw4IE73.

Budisatria IGS. 2006. Dynamics of small ruminant development in Central Java-Indonesia [PhD Thesis]. [Wageningen, (Netherlands)]: Wageningen University.

Dahlanuddin D, Supriyadi M, Panjaitan TS, Poppi DP, Quigley SP. 2016. Increased body condition during lactation increases milk production and pre-weaning growth of Bali cattle. J Anim Sci. 94:399-400.

Dilger AC, Schroeder AL, Moseley WM. 2016. Barriers to global implementation of current and development of new performance-enhancing technologies in meat production. Anim Front. 6:50-55.

FAO. 2009. Global agriculture towards 2050. High level expert forum - How to feed the world in 2050 [Internet]. Rome (Italy): Food and Agricultural Organization. Available from: http://www.fao.org/ fileadmin/templates/wsfs/docs/Issues_papers/HLEF2050_Global_Agriculture.pdf

FAO. 2011. World livestock 2011 - Livestock in food security. Rome (Italy): Food and Agricultural Organization.

FAO. 2017. The state of food and agriculture [Internet]. Rome (Italy): Food and Agricultural Organization. Available from: http://www.fao.org/3/a-I7658E.pdf.

Gilipsie J, Nyaupane N, McMillin K. 2013. Producer perceptions of important challenges currently facing the United States meat-goat industry. Prof Anim Sci. 29:333-344.

Goddard M. 2009. Genomic selection: Prediction of accuracy and maximisation of long term response. Genetica. 136:245-257.

Goddard ME, Hayes BJ. 2007. Genomic selection. J Anim Breed Genet. 124:323-330.

Henriksen J, Rota A. 2014. Commercialization of livestock production; towards a profitable and market-oriented smallholder livestock production system. Livest Res Rural Dev [Internet]. 26. Available from: http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd26/5/hend26090.html

Jaleta M, Gebremedhin B, Hoekstra D. 2009. Smallholder commercialization: Processes, determinants and impact. In: Discussion Paper No. 18. Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) of Ethiopian Farmers Project. Nairobi (Kenya): ILRI.

Juma C. 2015. The new harvest: Agricultural innovation in Africa [Internet]. 2nd ed. New York (US): Oxford University Press. Available from: https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/files/publication/TNH-final-Juma2.pdf

Khapayi M, Celliers PR. 2016. Factors limiting and preventing emerging farmers to progress to commercial agricultural farming in the king william’s town area of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. South African Soc Agric Ext [Internet]. 44:25–41. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2413-3221/2016/v44n1a374

Kirui OK, Njiraini GW. 2013. Determinants of agricultural commercialization among the rural poor: Role of ICT and Collective action initiatives and gender perspective in Kenya. In: AAAE Fourth Int Conf [Internet]. 22-25 September 2013, Hammamet (Tunisia): African Association of Agricultural Economists. Available from: https://ideas.repec.org/ p/ags/aaae13/161618.html

Lahai BAN, Goldey P, Jones GE. 1999. The gender of the extension agent and farmers’ access to and participation in agricultural extension in Nigeria. J Agric Educ Ext. 6:223-233.

Lowder SK, Skoet J, Raney T. 2016. The number, size, and distribution of farms, smallholder farms, and family farms worldwide. World Dev. 87:16-29.

Okezie CA, Nwosu AC, Okezie CR. 2008. An assessment of the extent of the commercialization of agriculture in Abia State, Nigeria. Agric J. 3:129-133.

Osti S, Gillespie J, Nyaupane N, McMillin K. 2016. Meat goat production in the United States: Adoption of technologies, management practices, and production systems. J ASFMRA. 2016:116-129.

Pingali PL. 1997. From subsistence to commercial production systems: The transformation of Asian agriculture. Am J Agric Econ. 79:628-634.

Sanyang SE, Jobe L, Drammeh M. 2017. Commercialization of livestock through value chain approach by smallholder farmers in the Gambia. World J Agric Sci. 13:172-178.

Thornton PK. 2010. Livestock production: Recent trends, future prospects. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci. 365:2853-2867.

Tovar-Luna, I, Puchala R, Sahlu T, Goetsch AL. 2017. Effects of gender and age on energy use by young Boer goats. Livest Sci. 199:86-94.

United Nations. 2017. World population prospects: The 2017 revision, key findings and advance tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248. New York (US): United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

USDA NASS. 2018. Farms and land in farms 2017 summary. Itacha (US): United States Department of Agriculture. Available from: http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/ current/FarmLandIn/FarmLandIn-02-16-2018.pdf

Wiggins GR, Cole JB, Hubbard SM, Sonstegard TS. 2017. Genomic selection in dairy cattle: The USDA experience. Ann Rev Anim Biosec. 5:309-327.

Windy N Ranch. 2018. Certified organic pastured goat. Wind N Ranch [Internet]. Available from: https://www.windynranch.com/grass-fed-goat

World Bank. 2009. Gender in agriculture sourcebook. Washington DC (US): The World Bank.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)  2019 WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.