Nutritional Support for Small Ruminant Development Based on Oil Palm By-products

simon petrus ginting, K Simanihuruk, A Tarigan, K R Pond


Biomass by-products or plant residues from the plantation system would play a crucial role in animal production since the utilization of forages from the underneath tree crops would be less or minimal when the palm oil crop mature. By-products generated from the palm oil system vary, but in relation to the animal production they could be generally categorized into the fibrous by-products and the non-fibrous (concentrate) by-products. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) and palm kernel cake (PKC) are concentrate by-products produced during the processing of palm oil extraction which have great potency to support sheep and goat production, although limiting factors such as contamination of shell and high copper level in PKC need to be considered in their utilization as feed. The fibrous palm oil by-products include oil palm fronds (OPF) and oil palm trunk (OPT) generated from the palm crop trees and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm pressed fiber (PPF) generated from processing of fresh fruits to yield crude oil. These fibrous by-products cannot meet the metabolisable energy required for high growth rate and for lactation of sheep and goats due to low DM digestibility, low crude protein content, low fermentable carbohydrate and low level of intake. Limited inclusion level in ration should be applied for those by-products to yield an acceptable production level of sheep and goats. Pretreatments (physical, chemical, and biological) gave some improvement in their nutritional qualities, however additional cost of pretreatments need to be considered. In the future, there would be a great challenge for the utilization of those fibrous by-products as animal feed since bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials to products such as chemicals (bioethanol, sugar, and bioplastic), fuels, and organic fertilizers are receiving greater interest. Some comparative advantages of these natural wastes are their relatively low cost, renewable and widespread in nature for used in an industrial operation.


Palm oil; by-products; nutrients; sheep; goat

Full Text:



Abdullah MA, Nazir MS, Wahjoedi BA. 2011. Development of value-added biomaterials from oil palm agro-waste. In: 2nd International Conference on Biotechnology and Food Science. IPCBEE. Vol. 7. Singapore (Singapore): IACSIT Press. p. 32-34.

Alimon AR. 2004. The nutritive value of palm kernel cake for animal feed. Palm Oil Dev Malaysian Oalm Oil Board. 40:12-16.

Ariffin H, Hassan MA, Kalsom MSU, Abdullah N, Shirai Y. 2008. Effect of physical, chemical and thermal pretreatments on the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). J Trop Agric food Sci. 36:1-10.

Carvalho LPF, Cabrita ARJ, Dewhurst RJ, Vicente TEJ, Lopes ZMC, Fonseca AJM. 2006. Evaluation of palm kernel meal and corn distillers grain in corn silage-based diets for lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 89:2705-2715.

Chanjula P, Mesang A, Pongprayoon S. 2010. Effect of dietary inclusion of palm kernel cake on nutrien utilization, rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial populations of goats fed Paspalum plicatulum hay-based diet. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol. 32:527-536.

Dahlan I. 2000. Oil palm frond, a feed for herbivores. Asian-Aus J Anim Sci. 13:300-303.

Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Goh YM, Sazili AQ, Soleimani AF, Jahromi MF. 2015. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis jacq) fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats. Ital J Anim Sci. 14:403-409.

Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Goh YM, Sazili AQ, Soleimani AF, Schonewille JT. 2013. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis jacq) fronds feeding of goats in the humid tropics. J Anim Vet Adv. 12:431-438.

Ginting SP, Antonius, Simanihuruk K. 2017a. Supplementation of inorganic and organic zinc mixtures in feed of Boerka goats fed palm oil fronds. IJAVS. 22:51-56.

Ginting SP, Handayani SW, Ketaren PP. 1987. Utilization of palm kernel cake for sheep production. In: Hutagalung RI, Peng CC, Embong WM, Theem LA, Sivarajasingam S, editors. Advances in Animal Feeds and Feeding in the Tropics. Proceedings 10th Annual Conference of the Malaysian Society Animal Production. Pahang (Malaysia): Malaysian Society Animal Production. p. 235-239

Ginting SP, Simanihuruk K, Antonius, Tarigan A. 2017b. Growth and feed utilization of Boer × Kacang crossbred goats offered total mixed rations of different protein and energy levels. IJAVS. 22:188-195.

Goh YM. 2002. Dietary manipulation using oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) frond to increase the unsaturated fatty acid content of mutton under tropical conditions [PhD Thesis]. [Selangor (Malaysia)]: University Putra Malaysia.

Grace ND. 1991. Micromineral kinetics and animal requirement. In: Ho YW, Wong HK, Abdullah N, Tajuddin ZA, editors. Recent Advances on the Nutrition of Herbivores. Proceeding 3rd International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores. Johor (Malaysia): Malaysian Society of Animal Production. p. 153-162.

Handayani SW, Ginting SP, Ketaren PP. 1987. Effects of supplementation of palm oil mill effluent for sheep fed a basal diet of native grass. In: Hutagalung RI, Peng CC, Embong WM, Theem LA, Sivarajasingam S, editors. Advances in Animal Feeds and Feeding in the Tropics. Proceedings 10th Annual Conference of the Malaysian Society Animal Production. Pahang (Malaysia): Malaysian Society Animal Production. p. 292-294.

Hassan OA, Shukri IM, Tajuddin ZA. 1994. Oil palm fronds as a roughage feed source for ruminants in Malaysia. Malaysia: Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre.

Hassim HA, Goh YM, Noordin MM, Rajion MA. 2007. Oil palm fronds and ruminant fat. In: Proceeding of EU-Asia Link Project Symposium on Current Research on Feeds and Feeding of Ruminants in Tropical Countrie. Bangkok (Thailand). p. 14-18.

Hassim HA, Lourenco M, Goel G, Vlaeminck B, Goh YM, Fievez V. 2010. Effect of different inclusion levels of oil palm fronds on in vitro rumen fermentation pattern, fatty acids metabolism and apparent bio-hydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 162:155-158.

Heuzé V, Tran G, Sauvant D, Noblet J, Renaudeau D, Lebas F. 2016.Palm kernel meal. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Available from: Last updated on March 23, 2016, 11:59

Ho YW, Abdullah N, Jalaludin S. 1996. Microbial colonization and degradation of some fibrous crop residues in the rumen of goats. Aust-Asian J Anim Sci. 9:519-524.

Hock LS, Baharudin AS, Ahmad MN, Shah UKM, Rahman NAA, Aziz SA, Hassan MA, Shirai Y. 2009. Physicochemical change in windrow co-composting process of oil palm mesocarp fiber and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge. Aust J Basic App Sci. 3:2809-2816.

Idris MS, Mohamad AF, Ismail D. 1998. Utilization of oil palm by-products as livestock feed. In: Darus A, Dolmat MT, Ismail S, editors. Proceeding National Seminar on Livestock and Crop Integration in Oil Palm. Johor (Malaysia): Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia. p. 77-64.

Indonesia Goat Research Institute. 2017. Formula pakan kambing. Sei Putih (Indonesia): Indonesia Goat Research Institute. (unpublished).

Kala DR, Rosenani AB, Fauziah CI, Thohirah LA. 2009. Composting oil palm wastes and sewage sludge for use in potting media of ornamental plants. Malaysian J Soil Sci. 13:77-91.

Khalil AHPS, Jawaid M, Hassan A, Paridah MT, Zaidon A. 2012. Oil palm biomass fibers and recent advancement in oil palm biomass fibers based hybrid biocomposites. Creativecommons [Internet]. Available from: by/3.0

Leng RA. 1990. Factors affecting the utilization of 'poor-quality' forages by ruminants particularly under tropical condition. Nut Res Rev. 3:277-303.

Mahgoub O, Kadim IT, Al-Busaidi MH, Annamalai K, Al-Saqri NM. 2007. Effects of feeding ensiled date palm fronds and a by-product concentrate on performance and meat quality of Omani sheep. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 135:210-221.

Mun WK, Rahan NAA, Abd-Aziz S. 2008. Enzymatic hydrolysis of palm oil mill effluent solid using mixed cellulases from locally isolated fungi. Res J Microbiol. 3:474-481.

Munir E, Goenadi DH. 1999. Bioconversion of oil palm trunk derived lignocellulose to reducing sugar. Menara Perkebunan. 67:37-44.

NRC. 1981. Nutrient requirement of goats: Angora, dairy and meat goats in temperate and tropical countries. Washington DC (US): National Academy of Science.

Obese FY, Osafo ELK, Okai DB. 2001. Evaluation of the feeding value of palm press fibre using in vitro digestibility techniques. Trop Anim Heal Prod. 33:165-172.

Olisa YP, Kotingo KW. 2014. Utilization of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB) as solid fuel for steam boiler. Eur J Eng Technol. 2:1-7.

Ǿrskov ER. 1991. Progress in predicting protein and energy supply and requirement in ruminant with emphasis on tropical condition. In: Ho YW, Wong HK, Abdullah N, Tajuddin ZA, editors. Recent Advances on the Nutrition of Herbivores. Proceeding 3rd International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores. Johor (Malaysia): Malaysian Society of Animal Production. p. 19-26.

Rahutomo S, Darmosarkoro W, Panjaitan FR, Sutarta ER, Yusuf MA, Leylana VD, Yudanto BG, Purba A, Siahaan D, Erwinsyah, Lydiasari H. 2012. Integrasi sawit, sapi & energi. Medan (Indonesia): Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit.

Ridwansyah MZ, Nasution TC, Sunarti, Fauzi AM. 2007. Karakteristik sifat fisiko-kimia pati kelapa sawit. J Teknol Indonesia Pertanian. 1:1-6.

Sahlu T, Goetsch AL, Luo J, Nsahlai I V, Moore JE, Galyean ML, Owens FN, Farrel CL, Johnso ZB. 2004. Nutrient requirement of goats: Developed equations, other considerations and future research to improve them. Small Rumin Res. 53:191-219.

Saka S, Munusamy MV, Shibata M, Tono Y, Miyafuji H. 2008. Chemical constituents of the different anatomical parts of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) for their sustainable utilization. In: Seminar Proceedings Natural Resources and Energy Environment. JSPS-VCC Program on Envirommental, Science, ENgineering and Ethics. Kyoto, 24-25 November 2008. Kyoto (Japan): Kyoto University and Universiti Sains Malaysia. p. 19-34.

Sinurat AP. 2003. Pemanfaatan lumpur sawit untuk bahan pakan unggas. Wartazoa 13:39-47.

Sudaryanto T. 2017. Palm oil and beef cattle integration system: A strategy to accelerate beef production in Indonesia [Internet]. Available from: http://ap.fftc. &print=1

Tong CC, Chew SL, Wahab MN. 1993. Deligification of palm-press fibre by white-rot fungi foe enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. Pertanika J Trop Agric Sci. 16:193-199.

Zahari MA, Zakaria MR, Ariffin H, Mokhtar MN, Salihon J, Shirai Y, Hassan MA. 2012. Renewable sugars from oil palm frond juice as an alternative novel fermentation feedstock for value-added products. Bioresour Technol. 110:566-571.

Zain M, Sutardi T, Suryahadi, Ramli N. 2008. Effect of defaunation and supplementation methionine hydroxyl analogue and branched-chain amino acid in growing sheep diet based on palm press fibre ammoniated. Pk J Nutr. 7:813-816.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)  2018 WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.