The Effect of Different Feed Formulation Based on Local Feed Resource on Performance and Stress Parameter in Breeder Goat

M S Shahudin, A A A Ghani, M Zamri-Saad, A B Zuki, F F J Abdullah, H Wahid, M S A Roslee, H Hamzah, H A Hassim

Abstract


Balanced nutrition is essential for health and performance of livestock. It is best when feed is formulated according to production stages of goat. However, as the goat grows, it may undergo transition of different feed formulation to meet its daily requirement. The transition may affect the performance of animals as well as it is a stressful condition. In this study, body weight gain and feed intake were used as indicators on performance, whereas hematological stress leucograms were used as indicator of stress parameter during implementation of different feed formulation among does. Eighteen adult does with similar body condition score and body weight approximately 20 kg were selected and divided into three groups equally (n = 6) and fed with different feed formulations, which were formulated using local feed source in the farm for a period of four weeks. Body weight was measured before implementation, on week 2 and week 4, blood sampling was conducted before implementation and during week 4 for comparison and feed intake was measured every day. All data were statistically analyzed using SPSS. Does fed with Diet 3 showed highest body weight gain and feed intake, followed by Diet 2 and Diet 1. There was significant difference (P<0.05) on body weight gain for all groups. Stress parameter on leucocyte counts for Diet 1 showed the highest number as compared to the other groups but no significant difference (P>0.05) as compared to normal value. Neutrophils:lymphocytes ratio for all groups were within normal range and no significant difference (P>0.05). The implementation of feed formulation according to production stages is recommended as it increases performance and prevents from nutritional stress.

Keywords


Body Weight Gain; Feed Formulation; Feed Intake; Neutrophils:Lymphocytes Ratio; Stress Leucogram

References


Abubakr A, Alimon AR, Yaakub H, Abdullah N, Ivan M. 2015. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats. PLoS One. 10:1-12.

Alam MM, Hashem MA, Rahman MM, Hossain MM, Haque MR, Sobhan Z, Islam MS. 2011. Effect of heat stress on behaviour, physiological and blood parameters of goat. J Chem Inf Model. 53:1689-1699.

Bradford PS. 2014. Normal values for leukogram data for adult animals. Large Animal Internal Medicine Fifth Edition, Elsevier. p. 382.

Cheeke PR, Dierenfeld ES. 2010. Comparative animal nutrition and metabolism. Wallingford (UK): CABI Publishing. 352 p.

Christopher DL. 2012. Boer goat production: progress and perspective. Hilo (USA): University of Hawai’i.

Devendra C. 2013. Investments on pro-poor development projects on goats: Ensuring success for improved livelihoods. Asian-Australasian J Anim Sci. 26:1-18.

Fazio E, Medica P, Cavaleri S, Cravana C, Ferlazzo A. 2006. Cortisol levels as indicator of stress in domestic goast under different housing systems [Internet]. Available from: http://www2.vet.unibo.it/staff/Gentile/Femesprum/Pdf. p. 147-150.

Feng J, Liu X, Xu ZR, Lu YP, Liu YY. 2007. The effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermented soybean meal on growth performance, digestibility of dietary components and activities of intestinal enzymes in weaned piglets. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 134:295-303.

Filley S, Peters A, 2006. Goat nutrition feeds & feeding. Hood River County (USA): Oregon State University Extension Service.

Ghani AAA, Shahudin MS, Hassim H. 2015. Nutrient Composition and In Vitro Ruminal Degradability of Selected Local 1 Plants Used As Goat Feed in Malaysia. Proceeding The 5thInternational Conference on Sustainable Animal Agriculture for Developing Countries. Pattaya, 27-30 October. 2015. Pattaya (Thailand): Rajamangala University of Technology Isan. p. 81.

Harjanti DW, Sugawara Y, Al-Mamun M, Sano H. 2012. Effects of replacing concentrate with soybean curd residue silage on ruminal characteristics, plasma leucine and glucose turnover rates in sheep. J Anim Sci Adv. 2:361-374.

Idrus Z., Bahyuddin N., Cheah YW, Soleimani AF, Sazili AQ, Rajion MA, Goh YM. 2010. Physiological responses in goats subjected to road transportation under the hot, humid tropical conditions. Int J Agric Biol. 12:840-844.

Li S, Zhu D, Li K, Yang Y, Lei Z, Zhang Z. 2013. Soybean curd residue: composition, utilization, and related limiting factors. ISRN Industrial Engineering, 2013.

Mary CS, David MS. 2011. Leucocytes parameter. Goat Medicine 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

Möstl E, Palme R. 2002. Hormones as indicators of stress. Dom Anim Endocrinol. 23:67-74.

Mustafa MY, Shahid M, Mehmood B. 2010. Management practices and health care of buffalo calves in Sheikhupura District, Pakistan. Buffalo Bull. 29:217-224.

Rahman MM, Nakagawa T, Abdullah RB, Embong WKW, Akashi R. 2014. Feed intake and growth performance of goats supplemented with soy waste. Pesqui Agropecu Bras. 49:554-558.

Ramsey LL. 2012. Effects of including okara into the diet of post-weanling crossbred Boer goats and its impact on growth and performance. [Thesis]. [Commerce (USA)]: Texas A&M University-Commerce.

Rahman MM, Rahman MR, Nakagawa T, Abdullah RB, Khadijah WEW, Akashi R. 2015. Effects of wet soya waste supplementation on the intake, growth and reproduction of goats fed Napier grass. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 199:104–112. [Internet]. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.11.007

Sultana S, Khan MJ, Hassan MR, Khondoker MAMY. 2012. Effects of concentrate supplementation on growth, reproduction and milk yield of Black Bengal goats (Capra hircus). The Bangladesh Vet. 29:7-16.


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14334/Proc.Intsem.LPVT-2016-p.291-299

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.