The Presence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Pteropus sp. in West Kalimantan

M Saepulloh, N L P I Dharmayanti, R M A Adjid, A Ratnawati, Indrawati Sendow


Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is one of zoonotic arboviruses which cause encephalitis in human and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Fruit bat is one of the natural reservoir of JE. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JE reactor in fruit bats. A total of 70 bat sera was obtained from West Kalimantan. Those sera were tested against JE antibody using an ELISA test. The results indicated that 4.2% of bat sera were positive against JE virus. The results indicated the importance of fruit bat is a reservoir host for a JE virus. Hence further prevention in public health must be considered and the detection and identification of JE virus should be conducted for molecular characteristic in relation to use appropriate vaccine in the country.


Fruit Bats; Japanese Encephalitis; Antibody; ELISA


CDC. 2012. Japanese encephalitis surveillance and immunization - Asia and the Western Pacific. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2013. 62:658-662.

CDC. 2011. Update on Japanese Encephalitis vaccine for childrend United States, May. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 60:664-665.

CDC. 2013. Use of Japanese Encephalitis vaccine in children: Recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 62:898-900.

CDC. 2015. Japanese Encephalitis. Chapter 3. Infectious Diseases Related to Travel. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [accessed in 25 April 2016].

Desai K, Coudeville L, Bailleux F. 2012. Modelling the long-term persistence of neutralizing antibody in adults after one dose of live attenuated Japanese Encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine. Vaccine. 30:2510-2515.

Diagana M, Preux PM. 2007. Dumas, Japanese Encephalitis revisited. J Neurol Sci. 262:165-170.

Fischer M. 2013. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine for U.S. travelers. Presentation to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Atlanta, GA. February 20, 2013. [Internet]. Available at:

Hadi UK, Soviana S, Syafriati T. 2011. Ragam jenis nyamuk di sekitar kandang babi dan kaitannya dalam penyebaran Japanese Encephalitis. J Vet. 12:326-334.

Halstead SB, Thomas SJ. 2010. Japanese Encephalitis: New options for active immunization. Clin Infect Dis. 50:1155-1164.

Hsu TC, Gao JQ, Lu KH, Tsai CH, Huang CY, Tzang BS. 2008. Japanese Encephalitis virus envelope protein mitigates TNF-alpha mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. Inflammation. 31:133-140.

Jiang L, Chen S, Zheng X, Ma S, Zhou J, Zhang Q, Li X, Xiong Y, Zhong X, Wang Z, Chen Q. 2015. Detection of serum antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus in bats in Hainan and Guangdong Provinces of China. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 35:720-723.

Jie C, Counor D, Shen D, Sun G, He H, Deubel V, Zhang S. 2008. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis virus antibodies in bats in Southern China. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 78:1007-1011.

Kumara MBAQ, Adi AAAM, Mahardika IGNK. 2013. Deteksi antibodi terhadap virus Japanese Encephalitis pada ternak babi di Wilayah Jembrana dan Klungkung. Indones Med Vet. 2:76-84.

Le Flohic G, Porphyre V, Barbazan P, Gonzalez JP. 2013. Review of climate, landscape, and viral genetics as drivers of the Japanese Encephalitis virus ecology. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 7:e2208.

Liu S, Li X, Chen Z, Chen Y, Zhang Q, Liao Y, Zhou J, Ke X, Ma L, Xiao J, Wu Y, Chen Z , Zhou J, Zheng X. Li J, Chen Q. 2013. Comparison of genomic and amino acid sequences of eight Japanese Encephalitis virus isolates from bats. Arch Virol. 158:2543-2552. DOI 10.1007/s00705-013-1777-5.

Lunt R. 2014. Japanese Encephalitis virus: competition ELISA test for the detection of serum antibodies. Australian Animal Health Laboratory Diagnosis, Surveillance and Response. Newcomb (Australia): CSIRO. p. 1-15.

McKenzie JS, Barrett AD, Deubel V. 2002. The Japanese Encephalitis serological group of Flaviviruses: A brief introduction to the group. Clin Microbiol Rev. 267:1-10.

Sendow I, Bahri S, Sarosa A. 2000. Prevalensi Japanese-B Encephalitis pada berbagai spesies di Indonesia, JITV. 5:46-52.

Sendow I, Syafriati T, Hadi UK, Malole M, Soviana S, Darminto. 2003. Epidemiology of Japanese-B Encephalitis infection in pigs in Riau and North Sumatera Provinces. JITV 8:64-70.

Sendow I, Field HE, Adjid RMA, Lunt R, Ratnawati A, Breed AC, Darminto D, Mustafa AM. 2008. Seroepidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis virus infection in bats and pigs in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Microbiol Indones. 2:79-82.

Shimoda H, Inthong N, Noguchi K, Terada Y, Nagao Y, Shimojima M, Takasaki T, Rerkamnuaychoke W, Maeda K. 2013. Development and application of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological survey of Japanese Encephalitis virus infection in dogs. J Virol Methods. 187:85-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.09.022. Epub 2012 Oct 6.

Tripathi P, Kumar R, Jain A, Pramod W. Ramteke PW. 2016. Hospital based surveillance for Japanese Encephalitis in Lucknow, India - 2011–2013: Need for more JE vaccination? Clin Epid Global Hlth. 4:40-44.

WHO. (2015). Japanese Encephalitis vaccines: WHO position paper-February 2015. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 90:69-88.

Zheng Y, Li M ,Wang H, Liang G. 2012. Japanese Encephalitis and Japanese Encephalitis virus in mainland China. Rev Med Virol. 22:301-322.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14334/Proc.Intsem.LPVT-2016-p.549-553


  • There are currently no refbacks.