Total Gas and Methane Evaluation of Rejected Mungbean Meal (Vigna radiata) with Jackfruit Leaves Addition

Wahidin Teguh Sasongko, Khurin’in ., T Wahyono


Protein protection on rejected mungbean meal (RM) using tannins derived from jackfruit leaves is aplicable methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate total gas and rumen fermentation characteristics of rejected mungbean meal with jacfruit leaves (JL) addition. Methane production was also observed to determine the efficiency of RM as feed after JL addition. Treatments consisted of RM (rejected mungbean meal), RM + 0.7% JL and RM + 1.4% JL. Experimental design was a completely randomized design with three treatments and three replicates. Gas production were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 h of incubation. Methane production were measured after 24 h incubation. Rumen fluid-buffer was taken after 24 h incubation and analysed for pH, NH3, total VFA, and protozoa population. Addition of either 0.7 and 1.4% JL significantly reduced the total gas production at 24 h incubation. RM with 0.7% JL addition reduced methane concentration (%), methane production (ml/IVOMD) and protozoa population (cell/ml). It is concluded that addition of jackfruit leaves reduced optimum total gas production, while addition of either 0.7 and 1.4% jackfruit leaves reduced methane production and protozoa population. The best dose of jackfruit leaves to protect rejected mungbean meal is 0.7%.


Methane; Jackfruit Leaves; Rejected Mungbean Meal; Total Gas


Ali CS, Din IU, Sharif M, Nisa M, Javaid A, Hashmi N, Sarwar M. 2009. Supplementation of ruminally protected proteins and amino acids: feed consumption, digestion and performance of cattle and sheep. Int J Agric Biol. 11:477-482.

AOAC. 2010. Official methods of analysis of AOAC. 18th Ed. Rockville (US): AOAC International.

Bhatta R, Saravanan MM, Baruah L, Prasad CS. 2015. Effect of graded level of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, total protozoa and methane production. J Appl Microbiol. 118:557-564.

Bunglavan SJ, Dutta N. 2013. Use of tannins as organic protectants of proteins in digestion of ruminants. J Livest Sci. 4:67-77.

Chumpawadee S, Sommart K, Vongpralub T, Pattarajinda V. 2005. Estimation of rumen undegradable protein with in situ nylon bag and in vitro enzymatic technique in tropical concentrate feedstuffs. Walaiak J Sci Tech 2:23-33.

Cortes JE, Morenob B, Pabón ML, Avila P, Kreuzerd M, Hess HD, Carulla JE. 2009. Effects of purified condensed tannins extracted from Calliandra, Flemingia and Leucaena on ruminal and postruminal degradation of soybean meal as estimated in vitro. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 151:194–204.

Dutta N, Agrawal IS. 2000. Effects of formaldehyde and heat treatment on protein degradability. Ind Vet J. 77:36-39.

El-Waziry AM, Nasser MEA, Sallam SMA, Abdallah AL, Bueno ICS. 2007. Processing methods of soybean meal. 2. Effect of autoclaving and Qucbraho tannin treated soybean meal on gas production and rumen fermentation in vitro. J Appl Sci. 3:17-24.

Getachew G, Makkar HPS, Becker K. 2000. Effect of polyethilene glycol on in vitro degradability and microbial protein synthesis from tannin-rich browse and herbaceous legumes. B J Nutr. 84:73-83.

Goering HK, Van Soest PJ. 1970. Forage fibre analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some application). Washington DC (US): ARS USDA.

Gürbüz Y, Kaplan M, Davies DR. 2008. Effects of condensed tannin content on digestibility and determination of nutritive value of selected some native legumes species. J Anim Vet Adv. 7:854-862.

Habibullah, Abbas M, Shah HU. 2007. Proximate and mineral composition of mungbean. Sarhad J Agric. 23:463-466.

Hamid P, Akbar T, Hossein J, Ali MG. 2007. Nutrient digestibility and gas production of some tropical feeds used in ruminant diets estimated by the in vivo and in vitro gas production techniques. Am J Anim Vet Sci. 2:108-113.

Haryanto B. 2012. Perkembangan penelitian nutrisi ruminansia. Wartazoa. 22:169-177.

Jayanegara A, Goel G, Makkar HPS, Becker K. 2015. Divergence between purified hydrolysable and condensed tannin effects on methane emission, rumen fermentation and microbial population in vitro. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 209:60-68.

Jayanegara A, Makkar HPS, Becker K. 2009. Emisi metana dan fermentasi rumen in vitro ransum hay yang mengandung tanin murni pada konsentrasi rendah. Media Peternakan. 32:185-195.

Klopfenstein T. 2006. Need for escape protein by grazing cattle. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 60:191-199.

Kongmanila D, Ledin I. 2009. Chemical composition of some tropical foliage species and their intake and digestibility by goats. Asian Australas J Anim Sci. 22:803-811.

Menke KH, Raab L, Salewski A, Steingass H, Fritz, Schneider W. 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feeding stuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor. J Agric Sci. 93:217-222.

Mohammadabadi T, Chaji M. 2012. The influence of the plant tannins on in vitro ruminal degradation and improving nutritive value of sunflower meal in ruminants. Pak Vet J. 32:225-228.

Morgavi DP, Forano E, Martin C, Newbold CJ. 2010. Microbial ecosystem and methanogenesis in ruminants. Animal. 4:1024-1036.

Naumann HD, Muir JP, Lambert BD, Tedeschi LO, Kothmann MM. 2013. Condensed tannins in the ruminant environment: A perspective on biological activity. J Agr Sci. 1:8-20.

Ogimoto K, Imai S. 1981. Atlas of rumen microbiology. Tokyo (Japan): Japan Scientific Societies Press.

Ørskov ER, Mcdonald I. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to the rate of passage. J Agr Sci Camb. 92:499-503.

Pamungkas D, Sevilla CC, Lustria UM. 2006. Changes in rumen ecosystem and feed dry matter degradability of buffalo which received rumen content of cattle through cross inoculation. JITV. 11:24-33.

Serensinhe T, Madushika SAC, Serensinhe Y, Lal PK, Ørskov ER. 2012. Effects of tropical tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique. Asian Australas J Anim Sci. 25:1404-1410.

Shelke SK, Thakur SS, Shete SM. 2012. Protected nutrients technology and the impact of feeding protected nutrients to dairy animals: A review. Int J Dairy Sci. 7:51-62.

Sofyan A, Sakti AA, Karimy MF, Julendra H, Istiqomah L, Herdian H, Damayanti E, Suryani AE. 2015. Effectivity of probiotic, micromineral enriched yeast and their combination with Azadirachta indica leaves containing tannin on fermentability and digestibility of Pennisetum hybrid. JITV. 20:95-104.

Wanapat M, Kang S, Phesatcha K. 2013. Enhancing buffalo production efficiency through rumen manipulation and nutrition. Buffalo Bull. 32:258-275.

Wanapat M, Rowlinson P. 2007. Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: Feed resources and rumen approach. Ital J Anim Sci. 6:67-73.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14334/Proc.Intsem.LPVT-2016-p.115-121


  • There are currently no refbacks.