The Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Methanolic Extracts of Herbal Medicine on Haematological Variable of Red Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)

Sharifah Raina Manaf, M D Hassan, M M Noordin, A A Razak, R H Hayati, A MN Faten, N H Hamid, M K Geetha, A R Rashidah


The most common strategy to treat in aquaculture disease is the use of antibiotics, however, such utilization has been accounted to have antagonistic impacts like accumulation of drugs in tissues, development of drug resistance and immunosuppression. One of the most promising methods of controlling diseases in aquaculture is strengthening the defence mechanisms through therapeutic administration. Vitex trifolia, Strobilanthes crispus, and Aloe vera have been reported to have better antimicrobial activity in vitro against Streptococcus agalactiae. However, there is no report on the application of the extracts on the treatment of Oreochromis sp. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of diet supplementation of selected plant extract for 14 days as disease treatment. In red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), white blood cell (WBC), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed significant differences between treatment and control. RBC, Hb and WBC levels of the infected group were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control group indicating improve defence system in the fish fed with V. trifolia, S. crispus, and A. vera. These results suggested that of methanolic mixed herbal to applying S. agalactiae infected Oreochromis sp had a synergistic restorative effect on the haematological variables.


Vitex trifolia; Strobilanthes crispus; Aloe vera; Streptococcus agalactiae; Oreochromis sp.


Afrizal. 2008. Analytical, bioactivity and stability studies on Strobilanthes crispus L Bremek and Sonchus Arvensis L Extracts. [PhD Thesis]. Pulau Pinang (Malaysia): Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Bilen S, Bulut M, Bilen AM. 2011. Immunostimulant effects of Cotinus coggyria on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 30:451-455.

Cristea V, Antache A, Grecu I, Docan A, Dediu L, Cre M. 2012. The use of phytobiotics in aquaculture. Lucr Stiintifice - Seri Zooteh. 57:250-255.

Harikrishnan R, Heo J, Balasundaram C, Kim MC, Kim JS, Han YJ. 2010c. Effect of Punica granatum solvent extracts on immune system and disease resistance in Paralichthys olivaceus against lymphocystis disease virus (LDV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 29:668-673.

NRC. 1993. Nutritional requirements of fish. National Research Council. Washington DC (USA): National Academy Press.

Nya EJ, Austin B. 2011. Development of immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) to Aeromonas hydrophila after the dietary application of garlic. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 30:845-850.

Rajan D, Suresh J, Paramakrishnan N, Sri Vasavi AR, Nayeem M. 2012. Review on phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Vitex trifolia Linn. Res J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 4:124-129.

Rawling MD, Merrifield DL, Davies SJ. 2009. Preliminary assessment of dietary supplementation of Sangrovit® on red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and health. Aquaculture. 294:118-122.

Roberts RJ. (1993). Motile aeromonad septicemia. In: Inglis V, Roberts RJ, Bromage NR, editors. Bacterial diseases of fish. London (UK): Blackwell Scientific Publications. p. 143-156.

Sahu S, Das BK, Pradhan J, Mohapatra BC, Mishra BK, Sarangi N. (2007). Effect of Mangifera indica kernel as a feed additive on immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 23:109-118.

Sheikhzadeh N, Nofouzi K, Delazar A, Oushani AK. 2011. Immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the immune system of rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 31:1268-1269.

Sunarto PA. (1997). Materia medika Indonesia. Jakarta (Indonesia): Penerbit Ditektorat Jenderal Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan.

Thanikachalam K, Kasi M, Rathinam X .2010. Effect of garlic peel on growth, hematological parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Bloch) fingerlings. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 3:614-618.

Vogler BK, Ernst E. 1999. Aloe vera: A systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. Br J Gene Pract. 49:823-828.

Yilmaz S, Ergun S, Celik ES. 2012. Effects of herbal supplements on growth performance of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Change in body composition and some blood parameters. J Biosci Biotechnol. 1:217-222.

Zilberg D, Tal A, Froyman N, Abutbul S, Dudai N, Golan-Goldhirsh A. 2010. Dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis as a treatment for Streptococcosis in tilapia. J Fish Dis. 33:361-369.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14334/Proc.Intsem.LPVT-2016-p.540-548


  • There are currently no refbacks.