Studies on Pathogenicity Effect of Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in Juvenile Red Hybrid Tilapia Oreochromis sp.

Nur Hidayahanum Hamid, M D Hassan, M Y Md Sabri, A H Hasliza, R H Hamdan, M NF Afifah, M S Raina, A BS Nadia, M M Fuad


This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of motile Aeromonas species (MAS) to induce clinical symptoms and some pathological changes in juvenile red hybrid tilapia. A standard dose of infection was selected based on predetermined LD50. Infected fish were observed for any clinical sign and symptom for 96 hours. Samples of liver, spleen and kidney were collected for histopatological changes due to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Clinical signs of fish included abnormal swimming behaviour and loss of balance. Most of infected fish suffered from haemorrhagic eyes and lesions on the body surface. Some of the them also developed bilateral exophthalmia. Histopathological changes were observed in kidney, liver and spleen. The infected liver showed severe congestion of hepatic veins and vacuoles formation while anterior kidney manifested degeneration of excretory tubules and glomeruli followed by severe haemorrhages and hyaline droplets degeneration. Spleen on the other hand showed tissues degeneration and vacuoles formation. All targated tissues also showed deposition of haemosiderin pigments followed by proliferation of melanomacrphage centres. Development of such symptoms was associated with the infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. The current study has shown that MAS could serve as the primary cause of severe infection not only in red hybrid tilapia but may also infected other freshwater fish species.The results of histological analysis of various tissues indicates a direct correlation between disease infection and histopathological disorders observed in the tissues.


Aeromonas hydrophila; Red Hybrid Tilapia; Histopathology; Melanomacrophage Centres


Afifi SH, Al-Thobiati S, Hazaa MS. 2000. Bacteriological and histopathological studies on Aeromonas hydrophila infection of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from fish farms in Saudi Arabia. Assiut Vet Med J. 84:195-205.

Agius C, Roberts RJ. 2003. Melano-macrophage centers and their role in fish pathology. J Fish Dis. 26:499-509.

Azeli A. 2007. Potensi besar ternakan tilapia. KOSMO: 19th July 2007. p. 9.

Cipriano RC. 2001. Aeromonas hydrophila and motile aeromonad septicemias of fish. Eriim tarihi. 11: 7.

Chopra AK, Xu XJ, Ribardo D, Gonzalez M, Kuhl K, Houston CW. 2000. The cytotoxicenterotoxic of Aeromonas hydrophila induces proinflammatory cytokine production and activates arachidonic acid metabolism in macrophages. J Infect Immun. 68:2808-2818.

Couillard CM, Williams PJ, Courtenay SC, Rawn GP. 1999. Histopathological evaluation of Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) collected at estuarine sites receiving pulp and paper mill effluent. Aquatic Toxicol. 44:263-278.

Datta Ray S, Homechaudhuri S. 2013. Non-specific immune response in Indian major carp, Catla catla against A. hydrophila infection. J App Sci Technol Cult Issues. 79:507-511.

Takahashi E, Ozaki H, Fuji Y, Kobayashi H, Yamanaka H. 2014. Properties of hemolysin and protease produced by Aeromonas trota. PlosOne. 9:e91149. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone. 0091149.

Fang HM, Ling KC, Ge R, Sin YM. 2000. Enhancement of protective immunity in blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus (Pailas), against Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio anguillarum by A. hydrophila major adhesin. J Fish Dis. 23:137-145.

Hibiya T. 1982. An atlas of fish histology, normal and pathological features. Stuttgart (Germany): Fischer. p. 64-65.

Huizinga HW, Esch GW, Hazen TC. 1979. Histopathology of red-sore disease Aeromonas hydrophilain naturally and experimentally infected largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacépéde). J Fish Dis. 2:263-277.

Islam MT, Mamnur Rashid M, Mostafa K. 2008. Histopathological studies of experimentally infected shing, Heteropneustes fossilis with Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria. Progress Agric 19:89-96.

Janda J M, Abbott SL. 2010. The Genus aeromonas: Taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 23:35-73.

Jiraungkoorskula W, Upatham ES, Kruatrachue M, Sahaphong S, Vichasri-Grams S, Pokethitiyook P. 2002. Histopathological effects of roundup, a glyphosate herbicide, on nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) herbicide, on nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Sci Asia. 28:121-127.

Kaleeswaran B, Ilavenil S, Ravikumar S. 2012. Changes in biochemical, histological and specific immune parameters in Catla catla (Ham) by Cynodondactylon (L). J King Saud Univ Sci. 24:139-152.

Kumar R, Pande V, Singh L, Sharma L, Saxena N. (2016) Pathological findings of experimental Aeromonas hydrophila infection in golden mahseer (Tor putitora). Fish Aquacult J. 7:160. DOI:10.4172/2150-3508.1000160.

Kurtović B, Teskeredžić E, Teskeredžić Z. 2008. Histological comparison of spleen and kidney tissue from farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L). Acta Adriat. 49:147-154.

Laith AR, Najiah M. 2013. Aeromonas hydrophila: Antimicrobial susceptibility and histopathology of isolates from diseased catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). J Aquacult Res Dev. 5:215.

Laleh YG, Mohammad EJZ, MiLad A. 2015. The study on effect of temperature stress on occurrence of clinical signs caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in Capoeta damascinain in vitro condition. J Adv Anim Vet Sci. 3:406-412.

Miyazaki T, Kaige N. 1985. A histopathological study on motile aeromonad disease of crucian carp. Fish Pathol. 21:181-185.

Noor El-Deen AE, Dorgham SM, Hassan AHM, Hakim AS. 2014. Studies on Aeromonas hydrophila in cultured Oreochromis niloticus at Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt with reference to histopathological alterations in some vital organs. World J Fish Mar Sci. 6:233-240.

Noor El Deen AE, Shalaby SI, Zaki MS, Abd Elzaher MF. 2013. Some infectious and non infectious eye affection syndrome in fish. Life Sci J 10:1362-1368.

Roberts RJ. 2001. The bacteriology of teleosts. In: Roberts RJ, editor. Fish pathology. Philadelphia (USA): WB Saunders. p. 315-321.

Shahi N, Mallik SK, Sahoo M, Das P. 2013. Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila associated with ulcerative syndrome in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in India. Isr J Aquacult. 39:11.

Pal P, Ray SD, Homechaudhuri S. 2015. Evaluation of in vivo non-specific immunity and oxidative stress in Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) infected with Aeromonas hydrophilaas biomarker for early diagnosis. Int J Fish Aquat Stud. 3:116-124.

Sun S, Zhu J, Jiang X, Li B, Ge X. 2014. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression analysis of a manganese superoxide dismutase in blunt snout braem Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish Shellfish Immunol J. 38:340-347.

Wolke REG, George CJ, Blazer VS. 1985. Pigmented macrophage accumulations (MMC, PMB): Possible monitors of fish health. In: Hargis WJ, editor. NOAA Technical Report NMfS 25. Washington DC (USA): NOAA. p. 93-97.

Yardimci B, Aydin Y. 2011. Pathological findings of experimental Aeromonas hydrophila infection in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 58:47-54.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14334/Proc.Intsem.LPVT-2016-p.532-539


  • There are currently no refbacks.