Frequency of Diseases Occurrence in Poultry Production Cluster (PPC) and Non-PPC in Indonesia

Eny Martindah, Nyak Ilham


A study to determine the diseases occurrence and the effectiveness in controlling infectious disease on the small poultry producers was carried out in Poultry Production Clusters (PPC) and non-PPC in West Java Province, Indonesia. In the PPC, the farmers form a cluster in an area. Secondary and primary data were collected by using semi structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, epidemiology-related information and triangulated check on information. The results indicated education and working experiences of farmers in chicken farming were the important factors for making decisions and getting the best for raising the poultry farm. Education levels of the farmers range from 6 to 10 years and farmers’ experience of poultry farming was 7 to 10 years. Farmers’ efforts to prevent disease occurrence were not optimum, as prevention and disease control were part of the nucleus responsibilities. The level of diseases occurrence in both PPC and non-PPC was similar with a few variations, and mortality rate was less than 5%. The diseases frequently found in PPC were slow growth syndrome and CRD, while in non-PPC was dominated by diarrhea. It is suggested that to reduce the disease occurrence, farm workers in PPC and non-PPC should implement some basic principle of biosecurity.


Diseases; Occurrence; PPC; Non-PPC


Abbas G, Khan SH, Hassan M, Mahmood S, Naz S, Gilani SS. 2015. Incidence of poultry diseases in different seasons in Khushab District, Pakistan. J Adv Vet Anim Res. 2:141-145.

Aboud FE, Singla DR. 2012. Challenges to changing health behaviours in developing countries: A critical overview. Soc Sci Med. 75:589-594.

Adjid RMA, Indriani R, Damayanti R, Aryanti T, Darminto. 2006. Dukungan teknologi veteriner dan strategi pengendalian penyakit unggas (ayam) di sektor 3 dan 4. Dalam: Subandriyo, Diwyanto K, Kompyang IP, Setioko AR, Ketaren PP, Suparyanto A, Priyanti A, penyunting. Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Inovasi Teknologi dalam Mendukung Usaha Ternak Unggas Berdayasaing. Semarang, 4 Agustus 2006. Bogor (Indonesia): Puslitbangnak. hlm. 22-27.

Aengwanich W, Intarakhamhaeng M, Wandee J, Nongbua T, Chaiyasak S, Srikot P, Thammasar K, Junsanitsri N, Sritongtuam K, Tawinwaang T. 2012. Poultry production clusters (PPCs) after AI outbreaks in Thailand: Past, present and future direction. Int J Poult Sci. 11:541-550. DOI:

Aengwanich W. 2014. Farm models and eco-health of poultry production clusters (PPCs) following avian influenza epidemics in Thailand. Sustainability. 6:2300-2319.

Awan MA, Otte M J, James AD. 1994. The epidemiology of newcastle disease in rural poultry: A review. Avian Pathol. 23:405-423.

Bandiera O, Rasul I. 2006. Social networks and technology adoption in Northern Mozambique. Econom J. 116:869-902.

Butcher GD, Miles RS. 2009. Infectious bursal disease (gumboro) in commercial broilers. Document VM84, one of a series of the Veterinary Medicine-Large Animal Clinical Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Florida (US): Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.

Ditjen PKH. 2013. Statistik peternakan dan keehatan hewan 2013. Jakarta (Indonesia): Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan dan Kesehatan Hewan, Kementerian Pertanian.

Hassan K, Kabir H, Abdullah A, Sultana S, Khokon SI, Kabir SML. 2016. Prevalence of poultry diseases in Gazipur District of Bangladesh. Asian J Med Biol Res. 2:107-112. DOI: 10.3329/ajmbr.v2i1.27575

Hicham S, Oumouna M. 2012. Avian mycoplasmosis is a continuing economic challenge. World Poul. 28.

Ilham N, Yusdja Y, Basuno E, Martindah E, Sartika RAD. 2013. Ecohealth assesment on poultry production clusters for the livehood of improvement small producers. Final report. Bogor (Indonesia): Indonesia Center for Sosio-Economic and Agriculture Policies. Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Reserch and Development. Ministry of Agriculture – Republic of Indonesia collaboration with International Development Research Centre (IDRC) – Canada.

Ilham N. 2015. Kebijakan pemerintah terhadap usaha unggas skala kecil dan kesehatan lingkungan di Indonesia. Wartazoa. 25:95-105. DOI:

Infovet. 2008. Classic problem remains disturbing, Focus. INFOVET, Ed. 182.

Jensen KL, English BC, Menard, RJ. 2009. Livestock farmers' use of animal or herd health information sources. J Extension. 47:1-10.

Katungi E, Edmeades S, Smale M. 2008. Gender, social capital and information exchange in rural Uganda. J Int Dev. 20:35-52.

Ley DH, Yoder HWJr. 1997. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM, editors. Diseases of poultry. 10th Ed. London (UK): Mosby-Wolfe. p. 194-207.

Martindah E, Ilham N, Basuno E. 2014. Biosecurity level of poultry production cluster (PPC) in West Java, Indonesia. Int J Poult Sci. 13:408-415.

Okwor EC, Eze DC. 2010. The annual prevalence of newcastle disease in commercial chickens reared in South Eastern savannah zone of Nigeria. Res J Poult Sci. 3:23-26.

Padmawati S, Nichter M. 2008: Community response to avian flu in Central Java, Indonesia. Anthropol Med. 15:31-51.

Payne J. 2008. Runting-stunting syndrome in broilers. Timely Topic Newsletter. Vol.7. 5 June 2008.

Shane SM. 1998. A Handbook of Poultry Diseases. American Soybean Association. Singapore. Unite Soybean Board.

Sharma B. 2010. Poultry production, management and bio-security measures. J Agric Environ. 11:120-125.

Smart IJ, Barr DA, Reece RJ, Forsyth WM, Ewing I. 1988. Axperimental reproduction of runting and stunting syndrome of broiler chickens. Avian Pathol. 17:617-621.

Sukoco NEW, Pranata S. 2012. Perilaku berisiko peternak unggas dan kejadian flu burung di Desa Mojotamping, Kecamatan Bangsal, Kabupaten Mojokerto, Provinsi Jawa Timur. Bul Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan. 15:47-54.

Susilowati SH, Patrick I, Iqbal M, Jubb T. 2013. The characteristics of the farm and the farmer that affect the adoption of biosecurity on smallholder poultry farms in Indonesia. Livest Res Rur Dev. 25:2013.

Tatlonghari G, Paris T, Pede V, Siliphouthone I, Suhaeti R. 2012. Seed and information exchange through social networks: The case of rice farmers of Indonesia and Lao PDR. Sociol Mind. 2:169-176.

Tuan AND. 2013. Eco-health assessment on poultry production clusters (PPCs) for the livelihood improvement of small producers. Research report. Hanoi (Vietnam): The Centre for Agricultural Policy, Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development.

Wahyuwardani S, Sani Y, Parede L, Syafriati T, Poeloengan M. 2000. Stunting or runting syndrome in broilers and description of pathology. JITV. 5:1-7.

Wang L, Liu Q, Zheng HE, Wu J, Li X. 2014. Development of poultry production clusters in China: A policy review. Int J Poult Sci. 13: 292-298.

Wang L, Basuno E, Nguyen T, Aengwanich W, Ilham N, Li X. 2015. An ecohealth assessment of poultry production clusters (PPCs) for the livelihood and biosecurity improvement of small poultry producers in Asia. Infect Dis Poverty. 4:2015. DOI: 10.1186/2049-9957-4-6. eCollection 2015. Acces on 8/4/2016.

Zavala G, Barbosa T. 2006. Runting and stunting in broiler chickens. Apinco-Facta [Internet]. [Cited 26 January 2013]. Available from: _apinco_06

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14334/Proc.Intsem.LPVT-2016-p.449-461


  • There are currently no refbacks.