Vaccination of Quails with Bivalent Inactivated H5N1 AI Vaccine (Clades 2.1.3 and 2.3.2) at Laboratory Scale

Risa Indriani, NLP Indi Dharmayanti


Quails, Coturnix sp, are commercially bred for meat and egg production in order to support the needs for animal protein. Cases of H5N1 Avian Influenza still occur sporadically at quail farms. Vaccination become an option as a precaution against possible exposure to H5N1 AI virus. Thirty quails were vaccinated with bivalent inactivated H5N1 AI vaccine (clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2) and 10 quails were used as control group. The quails were vaccinated with one dose (0.3 ml) per bird intramuscularly at the age of 23 days and booster was done at the age of 45 days. The response after a single vaccination showed that antibody titers were not optimal, but after the booster vaccination the antibody titers showed 4.2 log2 in average against the H5N1 AI antigen of clade 2.1.3 and 3.7 log2 against the antigen of clade 2.3.2. A challenge test with H5N1 influenza virus either with clade 2.1.3 or clade 2.3.2 indicated a 70% protection. Nevertheless, viral shedding was detected ≥7 days post-challenge. As conclusion, vaccination with inactivated bivalent vaccine H5N1 AI clades 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 induced antibody that were was not homogenous nor optimal.


Quails; H5N1 AI Vaccine; Avian Influenza

Full Text:



Dharmayanti NLPI, Indriani R. 2015. Efikasi vaksin inaktif bivalent avian influenza virus subtipe H5N1 (Clade 2.1.3 dan Clade 2.3.2). J Biol Indonesia. 11:169-176.

Indriani R, Dharmayanti NLPI, Adjid RMA, Darminto. 2011. Potensi virus avian influenza H5N1 isolat A/Ck/West Java/Pwt-Wij/2006 Sebagai Vaksin. J Biol Indonesia. 7:309-320.

Ditjen PKH. 2009. Kebijakan vaksinasi dan dan strategi vaksin avian influenza (AI). No. 30099/PD.620/F/9/2009. Jakarta (Indonesia): Direktorat Jendral Peternakan dan Kesehatan Hewan.

Ditjen PKH. 2014. Rumusan vaksin dan vaksinasi. Semarang 20 Februari 2014. Jakarta (Indonesia): Direktorat Jendral Peternakan dan Kesehatan Hewan.

El-Bagoury GF, El-Habbaa AS, Ahmed BA, Khodeir MH. 2014 Evaluation of quail susceptibility and its role in transmission of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1. Benha Vet Med J. 26:61‐70.

Ditjen PKH. 2013. Vaksin influenza inaktif. Farmakope obat hewan Indonesia. Edisi 4. Jakarta (Indonesia): Direktorat Jendral Peternakan dan Kesehatan Hewan. hlm. 69-70.

Lima FS, Santi E, Antonio CP, Luciano DK. (2004). Evaluation of different programs of NDV in Japanese quail. Inter J Poul Sci. 3:23-35.

Makarova NV, Hiroishi O, Hiroshi K, Webster RG, Daniel RP. 2003. Replication and transmission of influenza viruses in Japanese quail. Virology. 310:8-15.

OIE. 2012. Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. Edisi 7. Paris (France): Office International des Epizooties. p. 436-452.

Reed LJ, Munch H. 1983. A simple method of estimating 50 percent end points. Amer J Hyg. 27:493-497.

Swayne DE, Jackwood MJP. 2006. Pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses in poultry. Dev Biol. 124:61-67.

Saad MA, El-hady AI, El-nagar A. 2010. Study on immune response of quail for avian influenza vaccine. J Am Sci. 6:1475-1478.

Swayne DE, Suarez DL, Spackman E, Jadhao S, Dauphin G, Kim M, McGrane J, Weaver J, Daniels P, Indriani R, Yupiana Y, Siregar ES, Prajitno T, Fouchier R, Smith D. 2014. Emergence of antigenically variant Indonesian H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses resistant to multiple poultry vaccines. Atlanta (USA): SEPRL (in process).

Shewita RS, Ahmed HA. 2015. Influence of dietary phytase and multiple enzymes supplementations on growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response in Japanese quail. Am J Life Sci Res. 3:112-127.

Sarkadi J, Jankovics M, Kis Z, Skare J, Fodor K, Gonczol E, Visontai I, Vajo Z, Jankovics I. 2013. Protection of Chinese painted quails (Coturnix chinensis) against a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus strain after vaccination. Arch Virol. 158:577-2581. [Internet]. DOI: 10.1007/s00705-013-1754-z PMCID: PMC3830747.

Takahashi S, Inooka S, Mizuma Y. 1984. Selective breeding for high and low antibody responses to inactivated Newcastle disease virus in Japanese quails. Poult Sci. 63:595.

Wan H, Perez DR. 2006. Quail carry sialic acid receptors compatible with binding of avian and human influenza viruses. Virology. 346:278-286.

Wibawa H, Prijono WB, Dharmayanti NLPI, Irianingsih SH, Miswati Y, Rohmah A, Andesyha E, Romlah, Daulay RSD, Safitria K. 2012. Investigasi wabah penyakit pada itik di Jawa Tengah, Yogjakarta dan Jawa Timur: Identifikasi sebuah clade baru virus avian influenza subtype H5N1 di Indonesia. Bul Lab Vet. 12:2-8.



  • There are currently no refbacks.