Effect of Chicken Bone Extract Powder on Epididymal Sperm Quality of Male Wistar Rats

Kakanang Buranaamnuay, A Kettawan, C Changsangfa, S Aiemongkot


Calcium is one of the minerals that are essential for male reproductive function. Calcium deficiency adversely affects spermatogenesis, normal sperm function and results in infertility. The sperm quality of rats fed a standard diet containing chicken bone extract powder (BEP) was assessed in the present study. Twenty male 8-week-old rats, Wistar strain, were randomized by weight into two groups of ten rats each and fed ad libitum a standard diet containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3, control) or chicken BEP;  both were equivalent to 0.5% calcium. At the end of the 7-week consumption, the net body weight gains measured in control (101.33±21.81 g) and chicken BEP groups (100.74±26.80 g) were not significantly different (P>0.05). The in vitro sperm quality in terms of concentration, motility, viability, resistance to hypotonic stress, acrosomal reaction ability and morphology was comparable between control and chicken BEP (all were P>0.05). The results suggest that chicken BEP addition into feeds is an alternative calcium source that is as effective but less expensive as CaCO3, a commercial calcium (fortificant). At least, it has no detrimental effect on male reproductive function.


Calcium, Chicken bone, Diet, Rat, Sperm

Full Text:



Asadi MH, Zafari F, Sarveazad A, Abbasi M, Safa M, Koruji M, Yari A, Alizadeh Miran R. 2014. Saffron improves epididymal sperm parameters in rats exposed to cadmium. Nephrourol Mon. 6:e12125. DOI: 10.5812/numonthly.12521.

Atmokotomo P, Arlan A, Sitosari H, Haniastuti T, Linggar Jonarta A. 2019. The Effect of Chicken Bone Powder Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation on the Calcium Level of Rat Pups’ Teeth. KnE Life Sci. 4:76. DOI: 10.18502/kls.v4i11.3854.

Atmokotomo P, Arlan A, Sitosari H, Saputri T, Wardani I. 2013. Utilization of chicken bone extract powder (beta) the rest of the chicken restaurant business as a feed supplement pellet wistar mice to optimize teething gear growth. In: Lap Akhir Penelit PKM-P. p. 8–9.

Badkoobeh P, Parivar K, Kalantar SM, Hosseini SD, Salabat A. 2013. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats. Iran J Reprod Med. 11:355–64.

Brondz I. 2018. Why Judaism and Islam Prohibit Eating Pork and Consuming Blood as a Food? Voice Publ. 04:22–31. DOI: 10.4236/vp.2018.42003.

Buranaamnuay K. 2019. Comparison of different methods for sperm vitality assessment in frozen-thawed Holstein bull semen. Thai J Vet Med. 49:249–255.

Buranaamnuay K. 2020. Effect of Different Permeable Cryoprotectants on the Quality of Cat Epididymal Spermatozoa. Cryo Letters. 41:237–244.

Cashman KD, Flynn A. 1996. Effect of dietary calcium intake and meal calcium content on calcium absorption in the rat. Br J Nutr. 76:463–470. DOI: 10.1079/BJN19960051.

Chung J-J, Navarro B, Krapivinsky G, Krapivinsky L, Clapham DE. 2011. A novel gene required for male fertility and functional CATSPER channel formation in spermatozoa. Nat Commun. 2:153. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1153.

Clouthier DE, Avarbock MR, Maika SD, Hammer RE, Brinster RL. 1996. Rat spermatogenesis in mouse testis. Nature. 381:418–421. DOI: 10.1038/381418a0.

Funahashi H, Nagai T. 2001. Regulation of in vitro penetration of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa by caffeine and adenosine. Mol Reprod Dev. 58:424–431. DOI: 10.1002/1098-2795(20010401)58:4<424::AID-MRD10>3.0.CO;2-1.

Harchegani AB, Irandoost A, Mirnamniha M, Rahmani H, Tahmasbpour E, Shahriary A. 2019. Possible mechanisms for the effects of calcium deficiency on male infertility. Int J Fertil Steril. 12:267–272. DOI: 10.22074/ijfs.2019.5420.

Iswadi MI, Ann ZF, Hafiz MM, Hafiz MD, Fahrul FJ, Hajarian H, Wahid H, Zawawi I, Khairiah MS, Mazni OA. 2012. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study. Open Vet J. 2:109–14.

Jaffar FHF, Osman K, Hui CK, Zulkefli AF, Ibrahim SF. 2021. Edible bird’s nest supplementation improves male reproductive parameters of Sprague Dawley rat. Front Pharmacol. 12:631402. DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.631402.

Kennedy U, Sharma A, Phillips C. 2018. The sheltering of unwanted cattle, experiences in India and implications for cattle industries elsewhere. Animals. 8:64. DOI: 10.3390/ani8050064.

Kettawan A, Sungpuag P, Chavasit V, Sirichakwal P. 2002. Chicken bone calcium extraction and its application as a food fortificant. J Natl Res Counc Thail. 34:163–180.

Loughrill E, Wray D, Christides T, Zand N. 2017. Calcium to phosphorus ratio, essential elements and vitamin D content of infant foods in the UK: Possible implications for bone health. Matern Child Nutr. 13:e12368. DOi: 10.1111/mcn.12368.

Natali I, Muratori M, Sarli V, Vannuccini M, Cipriani S, Niccoli L, Giachini C. 2013. Scoring human sperm morphology using Testsimplets and Diff-Quik slides. Fertil Steril. 99:1227-1232.e2. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.11.047.

Omirinde JO, Olukole SG, Oke BO. 2019. Age-related changes in the testicular and epididymal sperm parameters in the African Greater Cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck, 1827). Anim Res Int. 1:3255–3264.

Sittikulwitit S, Sirichakwal PP, Puwastien P, Chavasit V, Sungpuag P. 2004. In vitro bioavailability of calcium from chicken bone extract powder and its fortified products. J Food Compos Anal. 17:321–329. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2004.03.023.

Stewart TA, Davis FM. 2019. An element for development: Calcium signaling in mammalian reproduction and development. Biochim Biophys Acta - Mol Cell Res. 1866:1230–1238. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2019.02.016.

Talluri TR, Mal G, Ravi SK. 2017. Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks. Vet World. 10:214–220. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.214-220.

Valsa J, Skandhan KP, Khan PS, Avni KPS, Amith S, Gondalia M. 2015. Calcium and magnesium in male reproductive system and in its secretion. I. level in normal human semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Urol J. 82:174–178. DOI: 10.5301/urologia.5000039.

Veldurthy V, Wei R, Oz L, Dhawan P, Jeon YH, Christakos S. 2016. Vitamin D, calcium homeostasis and aging. Bone Res. 4:16041. DOI: 10.1038/boneres.2016.41.

Whisner CM, Martin BR, Nakatsu CH, McCabe GP, McCabe LD, Peacock M, Weaver CM. 2014. Soluble maize fibre affects short-term calcium absorption in adolescent boys and girls: a randomised controlled trial using dual stable isotopic tracers. Br J Nutr. 112:446–456. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114514000981.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.