Avian Beta Defensin 2 (AvBD2) Gene Polymorphism Identification in IPB-D1 Chicken

Masrurah Masrurah, Isyana Khaerunnisa, Sri Murtini, Cece Sumantri


Avian Beta Defensin 2 (AvBD2) gene, which is located in chromosome 3, plays an important role in the immune system of the chicken by inhibiting the development of microorganisms such as bacteria that infect body tissues. Defensins are produced through epithelial cells immediately after tissue injury or infection, which then processes the maturation of dendritic cells to initiate an immune response in the lymph nodes. The purpose of this study was to discover the polymorphism of the AvBD2 gene in IPB-D1 chickens. PCR and direct-DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the diversity of intron 1, exon 2, and intron 2 AvDB2 genes in 47 chickens. Genotype and allele frequency, and heterozygosity calculations were carried out to obtain information of the AvBD2 gene polymorphism. A total of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the AvBD2 gene located in intron 1 (g.4843T>A, g.4853G>A, and g.4859T>C), exon 2 (g.4881A>G, g.4889G>A, and g.5002C>T), and intron 2 (g.5075C>T, g.5111T>G, g.5116G>T, and g.5177G>T). All SNPs are polymorphic. The g.5002C>T mutation causes changes in the amino acid Ala to Val which has the potential to be a candidate for characterizing disease resistance in IPB-D1 chickens.


AvBD2 gene, IPB-D1 chicken, Polymorphism

Full Text:



[DGAHP] Directorate General of Animal Health and Production. 2020. Livestock and Animal Health Statistics 2020. Directorate General of Animal Health and Production, Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia.

Al-Habib MF, Murtini S, Gunawan A, Ulupi N, C Sumantri. 2020. Polymorphism of CD1B Gene and Its Association with Yolk Immunoglobulin (IgY) Concentration and Newcastle Disease Antibody Titer in IPB-D1 Chicken. Trop Anim Sci J. 3(3):197-204.

Allendorf FW, Luikart G, Aitken SN. 2013. Conservation and the Genetics of Population 2nd Ed. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, UK.

Bagnicka E, Strzałkowska N, Krzyżewski AJ, Horbańczuk J, Zwierzchowsk L. 2010. Expression and polymorphism of defensins in farm animals. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 57(4): 487–497.

Derache C, Meudal H, Aucagne V, Mark KJ, Cadène M, Delmas AF, Lalmanach A, Landon C. 2012. Initial insights into structure-activity relationships of avian defensins. J Biol Chem. 287(10):7746-55.

Hall T. 2011. BioEdit: An important software for molecular biology. GERF Bulletin of Biosciences 2:60-61

Hazlett L, Wu M. 2011. Defensins in innate immunity. Cell Tissue Res. 343:175–188.

Hellgren O. 2015. Allelic variation at innate immune genes (avian b-defensins), within a natural population of great tits. Journal of Avian Biology. 46: 113–118.

Hong YH, Song W, Lee SH, Lillehoj HS.2012. Differential gene expression profiles of β-defensins in the crop, intestine, and spleen using a necrotic enteritis model in 2 commercial broiler chicken lines. Poultry Science 91 :1081–1088.

Kim WH, Lillehoj HS. 2019. Immunity, immunomodulation, and antibiotic alternatives to maximize the genetic potential of poultry for growth and disease response. Animal Feed Science and Technology 250:41-50.

Kumar S, Stecher G, Li M, Knyaz C, Tamura K. 2018. MEGA X: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. Mol. Biol. Evol. 35(6):1547–1549.

Liu C, Jiang L, Liu L, Sun L, Zhao W, Chen Y, Qi T, Han Z, Shao Y, Liu S, Ma D. 2018. Induction of Avian β-Defensin 2 Is Possibly Mediated by the p38 MAPK Signal Pathway in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts After Newcastle Disease Virus Infection. Front Microbiol. 9:751.

Lu S, Peng K, Gao Q, Xiang M, Liu H, Song H, Yang K, Huang H, Xiao K. 2014. Molecular cloning, characterization and tissue distribution of two ostrich β-defensins: AvBD2 and AvBD7. Gene 554:1-7.

Luo G, Li X, Han Z, Zhang Z, Yang Q, Guo H, Fang J. 2016. Transition and Transversion Mutations Are Biased towards GC in Transposons of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Nanjing (CN): Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Morammazi S, Habibi S. 2017. Sequence variation in GAL1 and GAL2 genes in Khuzestan local chickens. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences 6(4): 509–515.

Nei M, Kumar S. 2000. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. New York (US): Oxford Univ Pr.

Nie C, He T, Zhang W, Zhang G, Ma X. 2018. Branched chain amino acids: beyond nutrition metabolism. International Journal of Molecul Science. 954(19): 1–16.

Shimizu M, Nii T, Isobe N, Yoshimura Y. 2020. Effects of avian infectious bronchitis with Newcastle disease and Marek's disease vaccinations on the expression of toll-like receptors and avian β-defensins in the kidneys of broiler chicks. Poult Sci 99(12):7092-7100

Stoltzfus A, RW Norris. 2015. On the Causes of Evolutionary Transition: Transversion Bias. Mol. Biol. Evol. 33(3):595–602.

Sumantri C, Khaerunnisa I, Gunawan A. 2020. The genetic quality improvement of native and local chickens to increase production and meat quality in order to build the Indonesian chicken industry. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 492:012099.

Susanti F, Murtini S, Wibawan IWT. 2020. Immune response of IPB-D1 chickens with TLR4 genes against Salmonella enteritidis bacterial infection. J. Veteriner. 21(2): 208-215.

Terada T, Nii T, Isobe N, Yoshimura Y. 2018. Changes in the expression of avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and proinflammatory cytokines and localization of AvBD2 in the intestine of broiler embryos and chicks during growth. J Poult Sci. 55(4):280-287.

Wang J, Raskin L, Samuels DC, Shyr Y, Guo Y. 2015. Genome measures used for quality control are dependent on gene function and ancestry. Bioinformatics. 31:318–323.

Wilson SS, Wiens ME, Smith JG. 2013. Antiviral mechanisms of human defensins. J Mol Biol 425(24):4965-80.

Xiao Y, Hughes AL, Ando J, Matsuda Y, Chen J, Donald SN, Zhang G. 2004. A genome wide screen identifies a single β-defensin gene cluster in the chicken: implications for the origin and evolution of mammalian defensins. BMC Genomics. 56(5): 1–11.

Zhang LY, Huang MY, Li Y, Chen DZ, Shi X. 2020. Association of three beta-defensin gene (AvBD4, AvBD5, AvBD14) polymorphisms with carrier-state susceptibility to salmonella in chickens. Br Poult Sci. 61(4):357-365

Zhao H, Rhaines NR, Huang SC. 2020. Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as hallmarks for innate immune cell activation and function. Cells. 562(9): 1–22.

Zhao L, Yang M, Zhang M, Zhang S. 2014. Expression, Purification, and In Vitro Comparative Characterization of Avian Beta-Defensin-2, -6, and -12. Avian Diseases 58(4):541–549.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.