Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammation Activities of Fraction and Single Peptides Derived from Mare Milk Protein

Eni Kusumaningtyas, Didik Tulus Subekti, D FL Fitaningtyas


Mare milk protein contains bioactive peptide which beneficial for human and animal health. Peptides in the fraction and single may show different activities.  The objectives of the study were to evaluate antimicrobial and anti-inflammation activities of the fraction and single peptide derived from mare milk protein. Antimicrobial assay was conducted by testing antibacterial and antifungal activities of fraction <3 kDa, peptide HPYFYAPELLYYANK, LVNELTEFAK and LANSLTEFAK against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Anti-inflammation effect was detected by interleukin 1-β (IL- 1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor -α (TNF-α) production in mice after administration of Escherichia coli’s lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and combined with fraction or single peptide. The result showed that antibacterial and antifungal of fraction <3 kDa was higher than all of single peptide. This may because of synergistic interaction among peptide in the fraction which increase the activities. Fraction <3 kDa was also able to decrease production of IL-1β and TNF-α better than single peptide indicated its ability to decrease inflammation. Based on the results, antimicrobial and anti-inflammation activities fraction <3 kDa was better than single peptide. 


Antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammation, peptide, mare milk



Abdel-Salam AM, 1 Dekheil A, Babkr A, Farahna M MH. 2010. High fiber probiotic fermented mare’s milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats. N Am J Med Sci. 2(12):569–575.

Almaas H, Eriksen E, Sekse C, Comi I, Flengsrud R, Holm H, Jensen E, Jacobsen M, Langsrud T, Vegarud GE. 2011. Antibacterial peptides derived from caprine whey proteins , by digestion with human gastrointestinal juice British Journal of Nutrition. Br J Nutr. 106:896–905.

Bormann N, Kolisza A, Kasper S, Schoen L, Hilpert K, Volkmer R, Kikhney J. 2017. OPEN A short artificial antimicrobial peptide shows potential to prevent or treat bone infections. :1–14.

Dinarello CA. 2011. Interleukin-1 in the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Blood. 117(14):3720–3732.

Dong W, Zhu X, Zhou X, Yang Y, Yan X, Sun L. 2018. Potential role of a series of lysine- / leucine-rich antimicrobial peptide in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Biochem J. 475:3687–3706.

Dowling AM, Dwyer JO, Adley C. 2017. Antibiotics : Mode of action and mechanisms of resistance . Antibiotics : Mode of action and mechanisms of resistance. In: ( Méndez-Vilas A (Ed), editor. Antimicrob Res Nov bioknowledge Educ programs. [place unknown]: Publisher: Formatex Research Center.; p. 536–545.

E K, R W, HD K, MT S. 2016. Bioactivities and Analysis of Peptides of Sumbawa Horse Milk Generated by Bacillus thuringiensis Protease. JITV. 21:244–254.

Fotschki J, Szyc AM, Laparra JM, Markiewicz LH WB. 2016. Immune-modulating properties of horse milk administered to mice sensitized to cow milkNo Title. J Dairy Sci. 99:9395–9404.

Garlanda C, Dinarello CA MA. 2014. NIH Public Access. Immunity. 39:1003–1018.

Giles JA, Greenhalgh AD, Davies CL, Denes A, Shaw T, Coutts G, Rothwell N, McColl BW AS. 2015. Requirement for interleukin-1 to drive brain inflammation reveals tissue-specific mechanisms of innate immunity. Eur J Immunol. 45:525–530.

Guarna MM, Coulson R, Rubinchik E. 2006. Anti-in £ ammatory activity of cationic peptides : application to the treatment of acne vulgaris. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 257:1–6.

Jelena Jovanović, Andrea Stefanović, Sanja Grbavčić, Nataša Šekuljica, Mohamed Elmalimadi BB, Knežević-Jugović Z. 2015. Peptides with improved antimicrobial activity screened by membrane ultrafiltration from egg white protein hydrolysates Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. In: 42nd Int Conf SSCHE May 25–29, 2015, Tatranské Matliare, Slovakia. [place unknown]; p. 732–739.

K R, R T. 2009. Role of interleukin-1 β during pain and inflammation. Brain Res Rev. 602(1):57–64.

Lee E, Shin A KY. 2015. Anti-inflammatory activities of cecropin A and mechanism of action. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 88 (1):31–44.

Manna S La, Natale C Di, Florio D, Marasco D. 2018. Peptides as Therapeutic Agents for Inflammatory-Related Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 19:1–18.

Mishra B, Wang G. 2012. The importance of amino acid composition in natural AMPs : an evolutional , structural , and functional perspective. Front Immunol. 3:1–4.

Mohamed MF SM. 2014. Efficacy of short novel antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides in a mouse model ( MRSA ) skin infection. Drug Des Devel Ther. 8:1979–1983.

Pei J, Jiang H, Li X, Jin W, Tao Y. 2017. Antimicrobial peptides sourced from post ‑ butter processing waste yak milk protein hydrolysates. AMB Express [Internet]. Available from:

Potočnik K, Gantner V. 2011. Mare ’ s milk : composition and protein fraction in comparison with different milk species. 61:107–113.

Rock KL, Lai JJ KH. 2011. Innate and adaptive immune responses to cell death. Immunol Rev. 243:191–205.

Serhan G, Stack CM, Perrone GG, Morton CO. 2014. The polyene antifungals , amphotericin B and nystatin , cause cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a distinct mechanism to amphibian-derived antimicrobial peptides. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 13:1–4.

Silvestro L, Weiser JN. 2000. Antibacterial and Antimembrane Activities of Cecropin A in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44:602–607.

Sun Y SD. 2015. No TInhibitory Effects of Antimicrobial Peptides on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammationitle. Mediat Inflamm.:1–8.

Tamargo J, Heuzey J Le, Mabo P. 2015. Narrow therapeutic index drugs : a clinical pharmacological consideration to flecainide. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 71:549–567.

Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Crosby K, Cisneros-Zevallos L BD, H. 2006. Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimation antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J Food Comp Anal. 19:669–675.

Wadas E, Daszkiewicz T. 2017. Nutritional Value and Health-Promoting Properties of Mare ’ s Milk – a Review. 2017:511–518.

Yin LM, Edwards MA, Li J, Yip CM, Deber CM. 2012. Roles of Hydrophobicity and Charge Distribution of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides in Peptide-Membrane Interactions * □. J Biol Chem. 287:7738–7745.

Yousr M, Howell N. 2015. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins. Int J Mol Sci. 16:29161–29178.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.