Enhance in-vitro rumen fermentation of Panicum maximum with biological supplements

Sumudu Chathurika, Sathya Sujani, Ariyathilaka Manawadu, Thakshala Seresinhe


Recently the utilization of biological feed additives over chemical feed additives in animal feeds have increased. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing wild guinea grass (panicum maximum) with two plant species, artocarpus heterophyllus (jack leaves; ah) and tridax procumbens (Tp) containing plant secondary metabolites tannin and saponin, respectively and the enzyme product dyadic cellulase (Ce) and yeast (Ye). For each suplement two levels of treatments were tested. In plant-based suplements 20 (Aht1, Tpt1) and 30% (Aht2 and Tpt2) substituted the base substrate. The enzyme was applied as 10 µl (Cet1) and 20 µl (Cet2) and yeast as 4 mg (Yet1) and 6 mg (Yet2). the experimental design was a randomized complete block design (rcbd) and the period of in vitro rumen fermentation incubation was 72 hrs. All treatments significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the in vitro gas production (Ivgp) compared with the control. Treatments of ah and ce significantly (P < 0.05) improved the in vitro rumen dry matter degradability (ivrdmd). All treatments significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the ruminal protozoa population as compared to the control. Ammonia nitrogen (Nh3-N) production was not significantly (P>0.05) influenced with supplements. in conclusion, treatments enhanced the rumen fermentation in means of enhanced ivgp, ivrdmd and reduced protozoa numbers.


Artocarpus heterophyllus, Tridax procumbens, Cellulase, Yeast, Protozoa, rumen fermentation

Full Text:



AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington. Helrich K, editor. Virginia (USA): Association of Official Analytical Chemists Inc.

Babayemi O. 2007. In vitro fermentation characteristics and acceptability by West African dwarf goats of some dry season forages. Afr J Biotechnol. 6:1260–1265.

Colombatto D, Beauchemin K. 2003. A proposed methodology to standardize the determination of enzymic activities present in enzyme additives used in ruminant diets. Can J Anim Sci. 83:559–568.

Eun J, Beauchemin K. 2007. Assessment of the efficacy of varying experimental exogenous fibrolytic enzymes using in vitro fermentation characteristics. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 132:298–315.

Fadel Elseed A, Rania, Abusamra M. 2007. Effects of supplemental yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture on NDF digestibility and rumen fermentation of forage sorghum hay in Nubian goat’s kids. Res J Agric Biol Sci. 3:133–137.

Getachew G, Blümmel M, Makkar H, Becker K. 1998. In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds: a review. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 72:261–281.

Giraldo L, Tejido M, Ranilla M, Carro M. 2007. Effects of exogenous cellulase supplementation on microbial growth and ruminal fermentation of a high-forage diet in Rusitec fermenters1. J Anim Sci. 85:1962–1970.

Iqbal MF, Cheng Y-F, Zhu W-Y, Zeshan B. 2008. Mitigation of ruminant methane production: current strategies, constraints and future options. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 24:2747–2755.

Menke H, Steingas H. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and gas production using rumen fluid. Anim Res Dev. 28:7–55.

Mutsvangwa T, Edwards I, Topps J, Paterson G. 1992. The effect of dietary inclusion of yeast culture (Yea-Sacc) on patterns of rumen fermentation, food intake and growth of intensively fed bulls. Anim Sci. 55:35–40.

Sniffen C, Chaucheyras Durrand F, de Ondarza M, Donaldson G. 2004. Predicting the impact of live yeast strain on rumen kinetics and ration formulation. In: Proc 19th Annu Southwest Nutr Manag Conf Tempe, Arizona, Febr 26 27 2004. Arizona (USA); p. 53–60.

Van Soest P. 1963. Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. II. A rapid method for determination of fiber and lignin. J AOAC. 46:829–835.

Sujani S, Pathirana I, Seresinhe T. 2015. Enhanced in vitro fermentation parameters of guinea grass ecotype “A” (Panicum maximum) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) with supplementation of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes. Livest Res Rural Dev. 27.

Tang S, Tayo G, Tan Z, Sun Z, Shen L, Zhou CS, Xiao WJ, Ren GP, Han XF, Shen SB. 2008. Effects of yeast culture and fibrolytic enzyme supplementation on in vitro fermentation characteristics of low-quality cereal straws1. J Anim Sci. 86:1164–1172.

Wang Y, McAllister T, Rode L, Beauchemin K, Morgavi D, Nsereko V, Iwaasa A, Yang W. 2001. Effects of an exogenous enzyme preparation on microbial protein synthesis, enzyme activity and attachment to feed in the Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec). Br J Nutr. 85:325–32.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.