The Effectiveness of Combination of Bioactive Substances Some Plants To Inhibit Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp growth on In Vitro and immune response and blood profile on In Vivo

Tiurma Pasaribu

Abstract

The use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) has been baned as feed additives in many countries, therefore the alternatives need to be found.  An in vitro experiment  was conducted to study the potential of combination of some plant extract to inhibit growth of pathogen bateria that normally occur in the poultry gastro intestinal tract.The combination of three plants bioactives (liquid smoke of cashew shells of Anacardium occidentaleor CLS, Phyllanthus niruri L. extract (EM), and Synzygium aromaticum extract (EDC) were formulated with and evaluated for its effectiveness to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.invitro.The mixtures (KE) were then made in 3 different concentration of the mixtures, i.e. 100 % KE, 50% KE and 25% KE and studied their effectiveness to inhibit growth of E. coli or Salmonella sp. by using microplate reader method. The results showed that the higher the concentration of the bioactive combination (KE100) the higher the ability to inhibit the growth of E. coli or Salmonella sp. The combination of bioactive substances CAM, EM, and EDC more effectively than Zn-bacitracin antibiotics to inhibit the growth of E. coli and Salmonella sp. The optimum concentration of KE with the similar effectiveness as the AGP was 25%. It was concluded that the combination of CAM, EM, and EDC was able to inhibit the growth of E. coli and even capable to eliminate the presence of Salmonella sp. In the biological assay, a combination of CAM, EM, and EDC either extract or powder form, high dose, medium or low does not affect the weight of the spleen, bursa fabricius, and blood profile. The best combination of CAM, EM, and EDC extracts to decreases the total bacterial population and E. coli is middle dose ie  0.0625% (extract) and 0.625% (powder). Likewise for live weight gain that was a good dose of extract or powder form can replace antibiotics. It was concluded that combinations of CAM, EM, and EDC had potential as a substitute for AGP in poultry feed, especially chickens.

Keywords

Keywords: Anacardium occidentale, Phylanthus niruri L., Synzygium aromaticum, E. coli, Salmonella sp

References

Abdulkarimi R. 2011. Immune response of broiler chickens supplemented with Thyme exteract (Thymus vulgaris) in drinking water. Annals of Biol Res. 2 (6):208-212.

American Public Health Association (APHA). 2015. Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. Editor. Yvonne Salfinger Y & Tortorello ML. 5th edition. APHA Press. Washington DC. (USA).

Akbarian A, Golian A, Kermanshahi H, Farhoosh R, Raji AR, De Smet S, Michiels J. 2013. Growth performance and gut health parameters of finishing broilers supplemented with plant extracts and exposed to daily increased temperature. Spanish J Agric Res.11(1):109-119.

Attia G, Hassanein E, El-Eraky W, El-Gamal M, Farahat M, Hernandez-Santana A. 2017. Effect of dietary supplementation with a plant extract blend on the growth performance, lipid profile, immune response and carcass traits of broiler chickens. IJPS. 16 (7): 248-256.

Barton MD, Hart WS. 2000. Public health risks: Antibiotic resistance – A Review. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 14(3): 414-422.

Bintang, IAK., A.P. Sinurat AP, Purwadaria T. 2007. Penambahan ampas mengkudu sebagai senyawa bioaktif terhadap performans ayam broiler. JITV 12(1): 1-5.

Bridgwater AV. 2004. Biomass fast pyrolysis. Thermal Sci. 8(2), 21-49.

Butaye P, Devriese LA, Haesebrouck F.2003. Antimicrobial growth promoters used in animal feed: effects of less well known antibiotics on gram-positive bacteria. ClinMicrobiolRev. 16:175–188.

Cortés-Rojas DF, Fernandes de Souza CR, Oliveira WP. 2014. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 4(2): 90–96.

Ekwenye UN, Njoku NU. 2006. Antibacterial effect of Phylanthus niruri (Chanca Piedra) on three enteropatogen in Man. Int J Moleculer Medicine and Adv Sci. 2(2):184-189.

Griggs JP, Jacob JP. 2005. Alternatives to Antibiotics for Organic Poultry Production. J Appl. Poult Res. 14:750–756.

Gbadamosi IT. 2015. Antibacterial attributes of extracts of Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri on Escherichia coli the causal organism of urinary tract infection. J Pharmacog and Phytotherapy .7(5):80-86.

Hernández F, Madrid J, García V, Orengo J, Megías MD, 2004. Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poult Sci. 83: 169-174.

Hidanah S, Sabdoningrum EK, Wahjuni RS, Arimbi. 2017. Implementation of Meniran Extract (Phyllanthus Niruri Linn) on the performance of broiler chickens infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum caused Chronic Respiratory Disease. The Vet Medic Int Conf (VMIC). 2017:296-307.

Himejima M, Kubo I. 1991. Antibacterial agent from thecashew Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) nut shell oil. J Agric Food Chem. 39:418-421.

HoqueM, InatsuM, Juneja V, Kawamoto, S. 2007. Antimicrobial activity of cloves and cinnamon extracts against food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken meat with their essential oils. J Food Sci Technol 72: 9-21.

Khaligh F, Sadeghi G, Karimi A, Vaziry A. 2011. Evaluation of different medicinal plants blends in diets for broiler chickens. J Medicin Plants Res. 5(10):1971-1977.

Kubo I, Komatzu S, Ochim M. 1986. Molluscicides from the Cashew Anacardium occidentale and their large-scale isolation. J Agric and Food Chem. 34:970-973.

Kumar PP, Paramashivappa R., Vithayathil PJ, Rao PVS, Rao AS. 2002. Process for isolation of cardanol from technical cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut shell liquid. J Agric Food Chem.50:4705–4708.

Kumar Y, Agarwal S, Srivastava A, Kumar S, Agarwal G, Khan MZA. 2014. Antibacterial activity of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and Garlic (Allium sativum) on different pathogenic bacteria. Int J Pure App Biosci. 2 (3):305-311.

Lestariningsih, Sjofjan O, Sudjarwo E. 2015. Pengaruh tepung tanaman meniran terhadap aktivitas antimikroba bakteri asam laktat dan Escherichia coli. J Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 25 (1): 55-60.

López CAA, Lima KRS, Manno MC, Tavares FB, Fernandes Neto DL, Jesus MLC, Viana MAO, L.A.B. Fonseca LAB. 2012. Effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on the performance of broiler chickens. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 64(4):1027-1035.

Monte J, Abreu AC, Borges A, Simões LC, Simões M. 2014. Antimicrobial activity of selected phytochemicals against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and their biofilms. pathogens.3:473-498.

Munfaati PN, Ratnasari E, Trimulyono G. 2015. Aktivitas senyawa antibakteri ekstrak herba meniran (Phyllanthus niruri) terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Shigella dysenteriae secara in Vitro. Lentera Bio 4 (1): 64–71.

Natsir MH, Hartutik, Sjofjan O, Widodo E. 2013. Effect of Either Powder or Encapsulated Form of Garlic and Phyllanthus niruri L. Mixture on Broiler Performances, Intestinal Characteristics and Intestinal Microflora. IJPS. 12(11): 676-680.

Noor SM, Poeloengan M. 2005. Pemakaian antibiotika pada ternak dan dampaknya pada kesehatan manusia. Lokakarya Nasional Keamanan Pangan Produk Peternakan: 56-64.

Oyedemi SO, Okoh AI, L. V. Mabinya LV, Pirochenva G, Afolayan AJ. 2009. The proposed mechanism of bactericidal action of eugenol, α-terpineol and γ-terpinene against Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.African J Biotechnol. 8 (7):1280-1286.

Pandey A, Singh P. 2011. Antibacterial activity of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) with metal ion effect against food borne pathogens. Asian J Plant Sci and Res. 1(2):69-80.

Parasa LS, Tumati SR, Kumar LCA, Chigurupati SP, Rao GS. 2011. In Vitro-antimicrobial activity of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nuts shell liquid against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 3(4):436­440.

Petersen KJ, Muretta JM, Higgins SE, Peterson KC, Gillipie GD, et al. 2014. High throughput time resolved flourescence in a microplate reader. Biophysical Journal 106(2):205-206.

Putri N. 2002. Uji efektifitas dan jenis daun tanaman terhadap perkembangan penyakit antraknosa dosebabkan oleh jamur Colletotricum capsici (Syd) pada buah cabai pasca panen. Fak Pertanian. Unand. Padang

Rao YK, Vimalamma G, Rao CV, Tzeng YM. 2004. Flavonoids and andrographolides from Andrographis paniculata. Phytochemistry. 65:2317–2321.

Rychen G, Aquilina G, Azimonti G, Bampidis V, Bastos ML, et al. 2017. Efficacy of Liderfeed® (eugenol) for chickens for fattening. EFSA J. 15(7):1-2.

Saenab A, Wiryawan KG, Retnani Y, Wina E. 2016. Karakteristik fisik dan kimia dari produk bioindustri cangkang Jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale). J Littri. 22(2):35-41.

Saidu AN, Akanya HO, Dauda BEN, Ogbadoyi EO. 2012. Antibacterial and comparative hypoglycemic effect of Anacardium occidentale leaves. Int Re J Biochem and Bioinform.2:6-10.

Santoso AT, Sidharta B, dan Noorhamdani, 2008. Uji ekstrak bunga kamboja (Plumeria acuminatae) sebagai antimikroba terhadap Shigella dysenteriae Secara In Vitro. Skripsi.

Setianto WB, Yoshikawa S, Smith RL, Jr, Inomata H, Florusse LJ, Peters CJ. 2009. Pressure profile separation of phenolic liquid compounds from cashew (Anacardium occidentale) shell with supercritical carbon dioxide and aspects of its phase equilibria. J. Supercrit. Fluids.48:203–210.

Setyohadi R, Abdullah AAHA, Narwastu ACLK, 2011. Uji efektifitas antibakteri ekstrak meniran (Phyllanthus niruri) terhadap Streptococcus pyogenes secara In Vitro. Skripsi. Tidak dipublikasikan. Malang: Universitas Brawijaya.

Sinurat, AP, Purwadaria T, Pasaribu T, Susana IWR, Dharma J, Rosida J, Sitompul S, Udjianto. 2004. Efektifitas bioaktif lidah buaya sebagai imbuhan pakan untuk ayam broiler yang diperoleh di atas litter JITV 9(3):145-150.

Sinurat, AP, Purwadaria T, Bintang IAK, Ketaren PP, Bermawie N, Raharjo M, Rizal M. 2009. Pemanfatan kunyit dan temulawak sebagai imbuhan pakan untuk ayam broiler. JITV 14(2): 90-96.

Sinurat AP, Wina E, Rakhmani SIW, Wardhani T, Haryati T, Purwadaria T. 2018. Bioactive substances of some herbals and their effectiveness as antioxidant, antibacteria and antifungi. JITV 23(1): 18-27.

Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia (SPI) 2014-2016. 2015. Jambu mete (Cahew Nut). Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan. Kementan. Editor: Subiyantoro ME, Arianto Y. Penerbit: Ditjenbun. Indonesia. 31 hal.

Sudarno, Setiorini FA, Suprapto H. 2011. Efektifitas ekstrak tanaman meniran (Phyllanthus niruri) sebagai antibakteri Edwardsiella tarda secara In Vitro. 3(1):103-108.

Turgis M, Han J, Millette M, Salmieri S, BorsaJ, Lacroix M. 2009. Effect of selected antimicrobial compounds on the radio sensitization of Salmonella typhi in ground beef. Letters in App Microbiol. 48:657–662.

Yusianti TS. 2001. Daya antibacterian ekstrak tanaman meniran (Phylanthus niruri L.) dibandingkan oksitetrasiklin terhadap Salmonell pullorum secara In vitro. Skripsi UNAIR Surabaya (IND).

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)  2018 Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.