Effect of different protein and energy levels in concentrate diets on nutrient intake and milk yield of Saanen x Etawah Grade goats

. Supriyati, R. Krisnan, I.G.M. Budiarsana, L. Praharani


Dairy goat contributes to food and nutrition security. However, information on nutrient consumption and milk yield, as well as milk composition of Saanen x Etawah (SAPERA) grade goat is limited. This experiment was done to evaluated nutrient intake, milk yield and its composition of lactating SAPERA goats fed with different levels of dietary energy and protein in concentrate diet. Thirty multiparous SAPERA goats were used in a randomized block design with three treatments (R1, R2 and R3) and ten replications for 12 weeks of lactation. The concentrate diets were formulated to contain: 18% CP and 72% TDN (R1), 17% CP and 75% TDN (R2), 16% CP and 78% TDN (R3). Those does were penned individually, and fed by basal diet (fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum, 500 g of fresh mixed forages) and 1 kg of experimental concentrate. Results showed that the treatments had significant (P<0.05) effects on CP, DIP, Ca, P intakes and FCR but had no significant (P>0.05) effects on DM and TDN intake. No significant differences were found in milk yield and milk composition between treatments. In conclusion, this trial suggested that the best feed for lactating SAPERA goats was the mixture of chopped grasses, mixed forages and concentrate diets (16% CP and 78% TDN) with 160 g/kg CP and 750 g/kg TDN of the total DM, produced a milk of 1.55 kg/d with 90 g/day of milk fat, 43 g/day of milk protein and 75 g/day of milk lactose.


Energy; Protein; Saanen X Etawah Grade Goat; Lactation; Milk Yield

Full Text:



Anwar MM, Ramadan TA, Taha TA. 2015. Serum metabolites, milk yield, and physiological responses during the first week after kidding in Anglo-Nubian, Angora, Baladi, and Damascus goats under subtropical conditions. J Anim Sci. 90:4795-4806.

[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2012. Official methods of analysis. 19th ed. Maryland (USA): Association of Official Analytical Chemists International.

Bava L, Rapetti L, Crovetto GM, Tamburini A, Sandrucci A, Galassi G, Succi G. 2001. Effect of a non-forage diet on milk yield, energy and nitrogen metabolism in dairy goats throughout lactation. J Dairy Sci. 84:2450-2459.

Ciappesoni G, Prybyl J, Milerski M, Mares V. 2004. Factors affecting goat milk yield and its composition. Czechoslov J Anim Sci. 11:465-473.

[DGLAH] Directorat of General Livestock and Animal Health. 2015. Livestock and animal health of statistics, Jakarta (Indones): Directorat of General Livestock and Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture.

Gaines WL. 1928. The energy basis of measuring milk yield in dairy cows. Illinois (USA): University of Illinois.

Goetsch AL, Detweiler G, Sahlu T, Puchala R, Dawson L. 2001. Dairy goat performance with different dietary concentrate levels in late lactation. Small Rumin Res. 41:117-125.

Gomes LC, Alcalde CR, de Lima LR, de Lima LS, de Souza R, Possamai APS. 2014. Nutritive value of diets containing inactive dry yeast for lactationg Saanen goats. R Bras Zootech. 43:36-43.

Kearl LC. 1982. Nutrient requirement of ruminants in developing countries. Logan Utah (USA): International Institute of Feedstuffs, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah University.

Krishnamoorthy U, Moran J. 2011. Rearing young ruminants on milk replacers and starter feeds. In: Makkar HPS, editor. Manual of animal production and health. 13th ed. Rome (Italy): Food Association Organization.

Lu CD, Kawas JR, Mahgoub OG. 2008. Review recent advancements in fiber digestion and utilization in goats. Trop Subtrop Agroecosys. 9:65-72.

Martínez-Marín AL, Pérez-Hernández M, Pérez-Alba LM, Carrión-Pardo D, Gómez-Castro AG. 2011. Prediction of energy requirements of Murciano-Granadina pre-ruminant female kids using the National Research Council. S Afr J Anim Sci. 41:345-349.

Mellado M, Meza-Herrera CAF, Arévalo JR, De Santiago-Miramontes MA, Rodríguez A, Luna-Orozco JR, Veliz-Deras FG. 2011. Relationship between litter birth weight and litter size in five goat genotypes. Anim Prod Sci. 51:144-149.

Mirzaei-Aghsaghali A, Maheri-Sis N. 2011. Importance of “physically effective fiber” in ruminant: A review. Ann Biol Res. 2:262-270.

Nascimento TVC, Miranda MS, Barros CHSC, Souza TTS, Lopes-Júnior ES, Voltolini TV, Moraes SA, Nogueira DM, Cordeiro MF. 2014. Return of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy goats supplemented with different levels of energy. Rev Bras Saúde Prod Anim. 15:1061-1071.

[NRC] National Research Council. 1981. Nutrient requirement of goats. Washington DC (USA): National Academy Press.

[NRC] National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: Sheep, goats, cervids, and new world camelids. 7th ed. Washington DC (USA): National Academy Press.

Park JK, Kim JD, Kim JA, Yoo JS, Bae GS, Kim CH. 2010. Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels on milk yield in Saanen dairy goats in mid lactation. J Korean Grassl Sci. 30:35-42.

Praharani L. 2014. Milk yield of Anglo-Nubian, Saanen x Etawah Grade and Etawah Grade raised in the same environment. In: Subandriyo, Kusmartono, Santosa KA, Kurnianto E, Purnomoadi A, Sodiq A, Wiryawan KG, Darodjah S, Inounu I, Darmono, Priyanti A, Wynn P, Han JL, Tay-Hsu J, Idrus Z, editors. Proceedings the 16th Asian-Australasian Associations of Animal Production Societies. [Yogyakarta (Indonesia)]: Universitas Gadjah Mada. p. 1527-1530.

Rufino MOA, Alves AA, Rodrigues MM, Moura RL, Cavalcante ACR, Rogerio MCP. 2012. Goat milk yield and quality on Tanzania-grass pastures, with supplementation. Acta Sci Anim Sci. 34:417-423.

Sahlu T, Hart SP, Le-Trong T, Jia Z, Dawson L, Gipson T, Teh TH. 1995. Influence of pre-partum protein and energy concentrations for dairy goats during pregnancy and early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 78:378-387.

[SAS] Statistics Analysis System. 2002. SAS/STAT user’s guide. Version 9.1. North Carolina (USA): SAS Institute Inc., Cary.

Silva FG, Brito LF, Torres RA, Riberio Junior JI, Oliviera HR, Caetano GC, Rodrigues MT. 2013. Factors that influence the test day milk yild and composition. Genet Mol Res. 12:1522-1532.

Souza de R, Alcalde CR, Oliveira CAL, Molina BSL, Macedo FAF, Gomes LC, Hygino B, Possamai APS. 2014. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by addition of calcium saltas of fatty acids. R Bras Zootech. 43:73-79.

Supriyati, Praharani L, Budiarsana I-GM, Sutama I-K. 2014a. Pengaruh perbedaan level protein dan energy pada konsentrat terhadap kinerja kambing betina muda Peranakan Etawah. In: Pamungkas D, Widiawaty Y, Noor SM, Purwantari ND, Widiastuti R, Brahmantiyo B, Herawati T, Kusumaningsih A, Handiwirawan E, Puastuti W, editors. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. [Bogor (Indones)]: Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development. Hlm. 449-456.

Supriyati, Praharani L, Budiarsana IGM, Sutama I-K. 2014b. Effect of different protein and energy levels in concentrate on Anglo Nubian goat performance. In: Subandriyo, Kusmartono, Santosa KA, Kurnianto E, Purnomoadi A, Sodiq A, Wiryawan KG, Darodjah S, Inounu I, Darmono, Priyanti A, Wynn P, Han JL, Tay-Hsu J, Idrus Z, editors. Proceeding of the 16th AAAP Animal Science Congress. [Yogyakarta (Indonesia)]: Universitas Gadjah Mada. p. 1890-1894.

Supriyati, Budiarsana I-GM, Praharani L, Krisnan R, Sutama I-K. 2016. Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk yield and milk composition of Etawah grade goats. J Anim Sci Technol. 58:1-12.

Sutama I-K. 2009. Productive and reproductive performances of female Etawah Crossbred goats in Indonesia. Indones Bull Anim Vet Sci. 19:1-6.

Teh TH, Trung LT, Jia ZH, Gipson TA, Ogden KB, Sweeney TF. 1994. Varying amounts of rumen-inert fat for high producing goats in early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 77:253-258.

Tufarelli V, Dario M, Laudadio V. 2009. Forage to concentrate ration in Jonica breed goats: Influence of lactation curve and milk composition. J Dairy Sci. 76:124-128.

Zambom MA, Alcalde CR, Kazama DCS, Martins EN, Hashimoto JH, Matsushita M, Ramos CECO, Grande PA. 2012. Soybean hulls replacing ground corn in diets for early lactation Saanen goats: Intake, digestibility, milk yield and quality. R Bras Zootec. 41:1-8.

Zeng SS, Escobar EN, Popham T. 1997. Daily variations in somatic cell count, composition, and production of Alpine goat milk. Small Rumin Res. 26:253-260.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.