Effect of enzyme supplementation on nutritive values of fermented palm kernel cake used to substitute soybean meal in broiler diet

Arnold P. Sinurat, Tresnawati Purwadaria, Maijon Purba


Two experiments was designed to improve nutritional values of palm kernel cake (PKC) by biofermentation process, followed by enzyme supplementation to substitute soybean meal (SBM) in broilers diet. A factorial of 2 x 2 design was applied in the first experiment, i.e. fermentation process (non fermented PKC and fermented PKC) and enzyme supplementation (no enzyme and +BS4 enzyme). Dry matter (DM) digestibility, AME and amino acids ileal digestibility (IAAD) of the treatment ingredients were measured in broiler chickens. Seven replications were applied for the DM and AME assays and 3 replications for IAAD assay. Second experiment was designed to study the effect of SBM substitution with enzyme supplemented FPKC (EFPKC). Four diets were formulated, i.e., control diet without EFPKC, 10%, 20 and 40% SBM substituted with EFPKC. All diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of broilers. Each diet was fed to broilers from 1 to 35 d. Body weight, feed consumption, FCR and mortalities were measured. Carcass yield, abdominal fat and weight of liver and gizzard were measured at the end of experiment. Results showed that fermentation of PKC increased the DM digestibility, the AME was also increased but not significant. Enzyme supplementation did not affect the DM digestibility and AME of PKC. Fermentation process significantly (P<0.05) decreased IAAD of some indispensable amino acids. However, supplementation of enzyme did not affect the IAAD of indispensable amino acids. Substitution of soybean meal with EFPKC reduced the feed intake and growth rate of broilers.


Palm Kernel Cake; Fermentation; Enzyme; Broilers; Soybean Meal

Full Text:



[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2005. Official methods of analysis of AOAC. Gaithersburg (MA): AOAC International.

Azman MA, Yilmaz M. 2005. The growth performance of broiler chicks fed with diets containing cottonseed meal supplemented with lysine. Revue Méd Vét. 156:104-106.

Bintang IAK, Sinurat AP, Murtisari T, Pasaribu T, Purwadaria T. 1999. Penggunaan bungkil inti sawit dan produk fermentasinya dalam ransum itik sedang bertumbuh. JITV. 4:179-184.

Ciurescu G. 2009. Efficiency of soybean meal replacement by rapeseed meal and/or canola seeds in commercial layer diets. Arch Zootechnica. 12:27-33.

Cobb. 2012. Broiler performance and nutrition supplement. Cobb-vantress.com.

Darma J, Purwadaria T, Haryati T, Sinurat AP, Dharsana R. 1989. Upgrading the Nutritional Value of Cassava Leaves through Fungal Biotechnology (Research Report). Bogor (Indones): Asian Network for Biotechnology in Animal Production and Health and Research Institute for Animal Production.

Dairo FAS, Fasuyi AO. 2008. Evaluation of fermented palm kernel meal and fermented copra meal proteins as substitute for soybean meal protein in laying hens diets. J Central Eur Agric. 9:35-44.

Dhawale A. 2005. Peanut and sunflower meal to replace SBM. World Poult. 21:12-13.

Iyayi EA, Aderolu ZA. 2004. Enhancement of the feeding value of some agroindustrial by-products for laying hens after their solid state fermentation with Trichoderma viride. Afr J Biotechnol. 3:182-185.

Kang, P, Hou YQ, Toms D, Yan ND, Ding BY, Gong J. 2013. Effects of enzyme complex supplementation to a paddy-based diet on performance and nutrient digestibility of meat-type ducks. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci. 26:253-259.

Khan SH, Sardar R, Siddique B. 2006. Influence of enzymes on performance of broilers fed sunflower-corn based diets. Pak Vet J. 26:109-114.

Muangkeow N, Chinajariyawong C. 2009. Determination of true amino acid digestibility and metabolizable energy in fermented palm kernel meal with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 for chickens. Walailak J Sci Tech. 6:231-241.

Nwokolo EN, Bragg DB, Saben HS. 1977. A nutritive evaluation of palm kernel meal for use in poultry rations. Trop Sci. 19:147-154.

Onwudike OC. 1986. Palm kernel meal as a feed for poultry: 1. Composition of palm kernel meal and availability of its amino acids to chicks. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 16:179-186.

Pasaribu P, Sinurat AP, Purwadaria T, Ketaren P. 2009. Peningkatan nilai gizi solid heavy phase sebagai pengganti jagung dalam pakan unggas. JITV. 14:167-176.

Pourreza, J, Samie AH, Rowghani E. 2007. Effect of Supplemental Enzyme on Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed on Diets Containing Triticale. Int J Poult Sci. 6:115-117.

Purwadaria T, Nirwana N, Ketaren PP, Pradono DI, Widyastuti Y. 2003. Synergestic activity of enzymes produced by Eupenicilium javanicum and Aspergillus niger NRRL 337 on palm oil factory waste. Biotropia. 20:1-10.

Purwadaria T, Sinurat AP, Haryati T, Sutikno I, Supriyati, Darma J. 1998. Korelasi antara aktivitas enzim mananase dan selulase terhadap kadar serat lumpur sawit hasil fermentasi dengan Aspergillus niger. JITV. 3:230-236.

Ramin M, Alimon AR, Ivan M. 2010. Effects of fungal treatment on the in vitro digestion of palm kernel cake. Livest Res Rural Develop. Volume 22, Article #82. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd22/4/rami22082.htm

Ravindran V, Hendriks WH, Thomas DV, Morel PCH, Butts CA. 2005. Comparison of the ileal digestibility of amino acids in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens and growing rats. Int J Poult Sci. 4:192-196.

Riyazi SR, Ebrahim-Nezad Y, Naze-Adi K, Maheri-Sis N, Vahdatpour T, Fouladi P. 2008. The effects of replacing soybean meal with different levels of rapeseed meal on performance of commercial laying hens. Asian J Anim Vet Adv. 3:448-452.

Saenphoom, P. Liang JB, Ho YW, Loh TC, Rosfarizan M. 2013. Effects of enzyme treated palm kernel expeller on metabolizable energy, growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci. 26:537-544.

Shi SR, Lu J, Tong HB, Zou JM, Wang KH. 2012. Effects of graded replacement of soybean meal by sunflower seed meal in laying hen diets on hen performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content. J Appl Poult Res. 21:367-374.

Sinurat AP, Purwadaria T, Purba M, Susana IWR. 2015. Peningkatan kandungan protein dan asam amino produk fermentasi bungkil inti sawit dengan perbaikan metode fermentasi dan penambahan sumber protein. Noor SM, Handiwirawan E, Martindah E, Widiastuti R, Sianturi RSG, Herawati T, Purba M, Anggraeni A, Batubara A, penyunting. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. Jakarta (Indones): Pusta Penelitian dan Pengembengan Peternakan. hlm. 679-688.

Sinurat AP, Purwadaria T, Ketaren PP, Pasaribu T. 2014. Substitution of soybean meal with enriched palm kernel meal in laying hens diet. JITV. 19:159-238.

Sinurat AP, Purwadaria T, Pasaribu T. 2013. Peningkatan nilai gizi bungkil inti sawit dengan pengurangan cangkang dan penambahan enzim. JITV. 18:34-41.

Sinurat AP, Purwadaria T, Bintang IAK, Pasaribu, T. 2006. Evaluasi nilai gizi solid heavy phase sebagai pengganti jagung dalam ransum broiler. JITV. 11:167-174.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH. 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. 3rd ed. New York (USA): Mc. Graw Hill Co., Inc.

Sue TT, Awaludin R. 2005. Palm kernel cake and pellet. In Basiron Y, Darus A, Ngan MA, Weng CK, editors. Palm kernel products – characteristics and applications. Malaysian Palm Oil Board. Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia): Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities.

Sundu B, Kumar A, Dingle J. 2006. Palm kernel meal in broiler diets: Effect on chicken performance and health. World Poult Sci J. 62:316-325.

Syarifah AR, Darah I, Ibrahim CO. 2012. Mannanase production by Aspergillus niger USM F4 via solid substrate fermentation in a shallow tray using palm kernel cake as a substrate. Mal J Microbiol. 8:273-279.

Taraz Z, Jalali SMA, Rafeie F. 2006. Effects of replacement of soybean meal with rapeseed meal on organ weight, some blood biochemical parameters and performance of broiler chicks. Int J Poult Sci. 5:1110-1115.

[USDA] United State Department of Agriculture. 2015. Indonesia Soybean Meal Imports by Year. http://www.indexmundi.com/ agriculture/? country=id& commodity=soybean-meal&graph=imports


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.